All posts by hrdunne


Making Smart Vehicles Cognitive

Vehicle networks play an increasingly important role in promoting mobile applications, driving safety, network economy, and daily life. It is predicted there will be more than 50 million self-driving cars on the road by 2035; the sheer number and density of vehicles mean non-negligible resources for computing and communication in vehicular environments.

 

It is important to develop a better understanding of the fundamental properties of connected vehicle networks and to create better models and protocols for optimal network performance.

Equipped with a $221,797 NSF grant, Min Song is collaborating with Wenye Wang of North Carolina State University on “The Ontology of Inter-Vehicle Networking with Spatial-Temporal Correlation and Spectrum Cognition.” The pair are investigating the fundamental understanding and challenges of inter-vehicle networking, including foundation and constraints in practice that enable networks to achieve performance limits.

Vehicular communications are driven by the demands and enforcement of intelligent transportation system and standardization activities on DSRC and IEEE 802.11p/WAVE. Many applications, either time-sensitive or delay-tolerant, have been proposed and explored, including cooperative traffic monitoring and control, and recently extended for blind crossing, collision prevention, real-time detour routes computation, and many others. With the popularity of smart mobile devices, there is also an explosion of mobile applications in terrestrial navigation, mobile games, and social networking through Apple’s App Store, Google Play, and Windows.

A systematic investigation of connected vehicles will be done to gain scientific understanding and engineering guidelines critical to achieving optimal performance and desirable services. The merit of the project centers on the development of theoretical and practical foundations for services using inter-vehicle networks. The project starts from the formation of cognitive communication networks and moves on to the coverage of messages. The project further studies how resilient a network is under network dynamics, including vehicular movements, message dissemination, and
routing schemes.

The impact of the research is timely yet long-term, from fully realistic setting of channel modeling, to much-needed applications in vehicular environments, and to transforming performance analysis and protocol design for distributed, dynamic, and mobile systems. The outcome will advance knowledge and understanding not only in the field of vehicular networks, but also mobile ad-hoc networks, cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and future 5G networks.

26

High-Performance Wireless Mesh Networks

A wireless mesh network is a network topology in which each wireless node cooperatively relays data for the network. Song’s CAREER Award project developed distributed interference-aware broadcasting protocols for wireless mesh networks to achieve 100 percent reliability, low broadcasting latency, and high throughput. The problem of network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad-hoc mesh networks. Many broadcasting protocols have been developed for wireless ad-hoc networks with different focuses. However, these protocols assume a single-radio, single-channel, and single-rate network model and/or a generalized physical model and do not take into account the impact of interference. This project focuses on the design, analysis, and implementation of distributed broadcasting protocols for multi-radio, multi-channel, and multi-rate ad-hoc mesh networks.

Song’s work advances knowledge and understanding in the areas of wireless mesh networks, network optimization, information dissemination, and network performance analysis. Research findings allow the research community and network service providers to better understand the technical implications of heterogeneous networking technologies and cross-layer protocol support, and to create new technology needed for building future wireless mesh networks. The techniques developed in this project will have a broad impact on a spectrum of applications, including homeland security, military network deployment, information dissemination, and daily life. A deep understanding of interference and broadcasting will foster the deployment of more wireless mesh networks, and the development of better network protocols and network architecture. The problems studied are pragmatically and intellectually important and the solutions are critical to several areas such as modeling of wireless communication links, system performance analysis, and algorithms.


In the News

17An AP news article titled “Michigan Tech Students Teach Tech to the Inexperienced,” which features Michigan Tech’s BASIC (Building Adult Skills in Computing) program, Charles Wallace (CS), and Kelly Steelman (CLS), was published in the Charlotte Observer, Kansas City Star, Miami Herald, Washington Times, and many other news outlets across the country.

Drs. Wallace and Steelman were also featured on our blog post, Breaking Digital Barriers, last month highlighting their research.


Deep Inside the Mind Music Machine Lab

Cognitive science is a relatively new interdisciplinary field weaving neuroscience, psychology, linguistics, anthropology, and philosophy with computer science. Cognitive scientist Myounghoon “Philart” Jeon, whose nickname translates to “love art,” studies how the human mind reacts to technology. Inside a unique research lab at Michigan Tech, Philart teaches digital devices how to recognize and react to human emotion.

Art Meets Technology

Humans respond to technology, but can technology respond to humans? That’s the goal of the Mind Music Machine Lab. Together with Computer Science and Human Factors students, Philart looks at both physical and internal states of artists at work. He asks: What goes on in an artist’s brain while making art?

23

Reflective tracking markers are attached to performance artists—which have included dancers, visual artists, robots, and even puppies—and 12 infrared cameras visualize and sonify their movement. From the movements, the immersive Interactive Sonification Platform (ilSoP) detects four primary emotions: happy, sad, angry, and content. The result is a system that recognizes movement and emotion to generate real-time music and art.

Robotic Friends for Kids with Autism

Just as technology may not pick up subtle emotional cues, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in social interaction, verbal, and nonverbal communication. In this National Institutes of Health-funded project, Jeon uses technology in the form of interactive robots to provide feedback and stimuli to children with ASD.

These children have difficulty expressing emotions. Robots can help express and read emotion.

Studies indicate autistic children prefer simplistic animals and robots to complex humans. “These children have difficulty expressing emotions. And robots can help express and read emotion,” he says.

Robots are programmed to say phrases with different emotional inflections. Cameras and Microsoft Kinect detect facial expressions of humans and use sound cues to reinforce what an emotion is. All the while, parents and clinicians monitor the interaction between the child and robot.

24


Visualizing a Bright Future for Computer Science Education

Visualization is a process of presenting data and algorithms using graphics and animations to help people understand or see the inner workings. It’s the work of Ching-Kuang “CK” Shene. “It’s very fascinating work,” Shene says. “The goal is to make all hidden facts visible.”

Shene helps students and professionals learn the algorithm—the step-by-step formula—of software through visualization tools.

All 10 of Shene’s National Science Foundation-funded projects center on geometry, computer graphics, and visualization. Together with colleagues from Michigan Tech, he’s transferring the unseen world of visualization into the classroom.

Shene helps students and professionals learn the algorithm—the step-by-step formula—of software through visualization tools. His tools offer a demo mode so teachers can present an animation of the procedure to their class; a practice mode for learners to try an exercise; and a quiz mode to assess mastery of the concept. Tools Shene has implemented at Michigan Tech and the world over include DesignMentor for Bézier, B-Spline, and NURBS curve and surface design; ThreadMentor—visualization for multi-thread execution and synchronization—and CryptoMentor, a set of six tools to visualize cryptographic algorithms.

20

Shene and Associate Professor of Computer Science Jean Mayo are collaborating on two new tools—Access Control and VACCS. He hopes his lifetime of visualization work helps advance the field of computer science: “My goal is to visualize everything in computer science.”


Better Communication and Collaboration in Computer Science

Communication and teamwork are essential skills for computer science and software engineering graduates—but the traditional approach to introductory undergraduate computer science courses, focusing on individual programming assignments and discouraging collaboration, doesn’t prepare students for reality. Charles Wallace breaks the mold and promotes interaction as a primary activity in software development. Inspired by real software teams using so-called agile methods, he and his team are building an introductory curriculum that gives students exposure to interpersonal activities like inquiry, critique, and reflection.

Better Computer Science Education through Chemistry

One tool in this effort—POGIL (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning)—is borrowed from undergraduate chemistry education, where it has been used successfully for 20 years. At the heart of POGIL is a guided inquiry learning cycle of exploration, concept invention, and application. Students work in small groups with well-defined roles—similarly to teams in agile software development—to encourage accountability and engagement. In essence, it is an application of the scientific method in a carefully crafted classroom setting. In addition to learning core concepts at the heart of the assignment, students get practice in team problem solving and communication.

WebTA is a software tool being developed by Wallace and his colleagues to provide automated critique of student programs. The tool is integrated with the Canvas Learning Management System to provide immediate feedback to students as they write code. Students using this tool are engaged in communication-by-proxy with the instructor. This communication is not meant to replace instructor feedback, but to codify common feedback scenarios to assist the instructor in reaching students in tight feedback loops just when the student is engaged in problem solving and learning (for instance, at 3 a.m. when the instructor is fast asleep). The instructor configures WebTA with interactive critiques triggered by errors, warnings, or textual analysis of the student’s code.

A third tool draws from research Wallace and a group of interdisciplinary colleagues conducted on team communication in software settings. Drawing from real-world examples including student projects and industrial case studies, students reflect on the characteristics and effectiveness of the written and oral communication they observe. The goal is to create a mindset that good communication requires design—choosing the right characteristics for the given setting. Later, when they are working with their own projects, students reflect on their own communication practices and those of other teams.

19

Learning from Professionals

Trends come and go in the field of software development, but communication between humans remains at its heart. Wallace is interested in deriving principles of effective software communication by turning to industry experts. Software developers communicate with clients, end users, and team members with very different perspectives and goals. Communication can cause problems because of the complexity (and invisibility) of software, competing goals of different stakeholders, a lack of universal vocabulary, and incomplete and changing requirements. Even professional software engineers who are effective communicators do not have practice in articulating what makes communication effective (or ineffective). A major obstacle is a lack of a common language for discussing the specialized forms of communication taking place in software teams and between developers and other stakeholders.

Through ethnographic studies of student teams and professional developers, Wallace is building a body of knowledge on communication practices. Ethnography looks at cultures from an insider perspective. Wallace’s colleagues in computer science and humanities, working as ethnographers, provided insider studies that reveal how communication practices are established and evolve over time. They are deriving patterns of effective practices—patterns that can be replicated time and again, in a variety of settings. In addition to contributing to the software development community’s library of patterns, Wallace and his colleagues are bringing the notion of communication pattern back to computer science students, helping them understand and analyze team software development.


Computer Science PhD wins service award at Graduate Research Colloquium

gorkem-headshotGorkem Asilioglu was presented with a Graduate Student Service Award at the 2017 Graduate Research Colloquium. Congratulations Gorkem!

The 2017 Graduate Research Colloquium (GRC) was held on February 15-16 in the Memorial Union Ballroom. There were oral and poster presentation. The banquet was held on the evening of February 16

ABC 10’s Keweenaw Bureau Reporter Rick Allen reported on the colloquium. Read more and watch the video at ABC10 UP, by Rick Allen.

Complete list of winners:

Oral Presentation Competition

  1. 1st Place: Kevin Sunderland, Department of Biomedical Engineering
  2. 2nd Place: Teresa Wilson, Department of Physics
  3. 3rd Place: Andrew Chapp, Department of Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology
  4. Most Attended: Muraleekrishnan Menon, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics
  5. Most Attended: Niranjan Miganakallu, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics

Poster Presentation Competition

  1. 1st Place: Matthew Kilgas, Department of Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology
  2. 2nd Place: Brian Page, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics
  3. 3rd Place: Zichen Qian, Department of Biomedical Engineering
  4. People’s Choice: Mugdha Priyadarshini, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Graduate Student Service Awards

  1. Gorkem Asilioglu, Department of Computer Science
  2. Hossein Tavakoli, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  3. Kate Glodowski, Department of Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology
  4. Erin Pischke, Department of Social Sciences

The GRC is held each year by the Graduate Student Government at Michigan Tech.


Breaking Digital Barriers

Associate Professor of Computer Science Charles Wallace is rethinking cyberlearning top to bottom. He’s working with K–12 and undergraduate students, software development professionals, and senior citizens to improve how humans communicate and learn in computer-intensive environments.

Digital literacy is a basic human need.

There is a revolution sweeping the nation, but millions of senior citizens are left out. Wallace believes digital literacy is a basic human need in today’s world. In 2011, together with Michigan Tech faculty and students, he began BASIC (Building Adult Skills in Computing), a grassroots effort to educate older Americans. Every Saturday morning at Portage Lake District Library in Houghton, Michigan Tech students help local seniors citizens with their computers, tablets, or smartphones, answering open-ended digital questions like, “how do I find an old friend on Facebook?” Or, “how do I stay safe online?”

There’s much more going on during these tutoring sessions than meets the eye. “The visual, motor, and cognitive challenges of standard digital interfaces are daunting for older users with limited digital experience,” explains Wallace. But there are deeper challenges as well: “digital literacy is not simply about doing a task better; it’s about building a cognitive toolset that allows flexibility and adaptability.” The Michigan Tech students who work as tutors also learn in the process. “Students are forced to reflect on the many things they take for granted—they are learning by teaching.”

A key factor behind the success of BASIC, according to Wallace, is its highly social nature. Seniors work side by side with each other and with Michigan Tech students. Being around others with the same challenges reduces anxiety. “Many seniors have a fear of exploring for fear of breaking an expensive investment. Because we work in a group, they can share ideas and choices they made, so they have more confidence.”

17

Now in its fifth year, the outreach program has spawned research projects. In conjunction with Professor Kelly Steelman, Cognitive and Learning Sciences, Wallace uses data from tutor experiences to create a digital learning curriculum sensitive to the needs of older students. He is also reaching out to other communities to replicate the successful Houghton-based program.

In addition to the curriculum, Wallace is overseeing the creation of a computer software tool that allows users to remember online choices they made and recall web browser behavior. As the user develops competence, the tool fades into the background. This tool can transfer to other populations—not just elderly—who face similar digital obstacles.

The initiative is supported through Michigan Tech’s crowdfunding site Superior Ideas. Learn more about Breaking Digital Barriers.


Ending of Moore’s Law is the Beginning

Every field of science and commerce now relies on computers and their capability to process data and information—fast.

Moore’s law enabled doubling the number of transistors that can be put on a chip every 18 months.

The ever-growing performance of computers is due to two main factors: our ability to shrink electronic circuits to smaller and smaller dimensions, and architectural innovation that improves how circuit elements interact with each other to perform computations. The former is commonly known as Moore’s law. Moore’s law enabled doubling the number of transistors that can be put on a chip every 18 months. This success continued for several decades.

When it became clear this path can’t be sustained, processor manufacturers shifted their focus to putting more processors on a single chip. Unfortunately, these processors cannot be programmed using the traditional software technique of writing sequential programs. Instead, programmers have to develop parallel programs. Parallel programs are difficult to write, debug, and maintain.
Since his CAREER award in 2003, Soner Onder has worked on alternative methods of building and programming processors. Contrary to existing execution paradigms, called Von Neumann architectures, Onder developed an alternative execution paradigm called Demand-Driven Execution. In this form of processor architecture and programming model, the execution of programs proceeds from the outputs of a program toward its inputs, and in the process, the machine automatically extracts all the available parallelism in the program and maps the extracted parallel operations to multiple processing elements. Unlike so-called multi-core computers, his approach does not require parallel programming. Instead, the execution paradigm itself automatically executes a given sequential program in parallel.

14

Onder’s most recent NSF grant is through the Exploiting Parallelism and Scalability program, which, according to NSF, “supports groundbreaking research leading to a new era of
parallel computing.”

Michigan Tech is the lead institution in this four-year project totaling $875,000. The project will study demand-driven computing to meet existing and emerging workload demands. Onder is working with four PhD students and colleagues from Florida State University to establish demand-driven computing as a viable approach to build faster and more power efficient computers.


Closer Than You Think

The Wild World of Virtual Reality

As consumer costs for virtual-based products slide, Scott Kuhl’s interest in VR ramps up. “The technology used to be so expensive, only large companies could afford to use it. Now it’s on the brink of becoming more affordable and accessible, and we’re looking at how to make the systems useful for more and more users,” Kuhl explains.

It’s on the brink of becoming more affordable and accessible, and we’re looking at how to make the systems useful for more and more users.

If you think virtual reality can’t impact your everyday life, Kuhl says: think again. “Let’s say you’re in the market for a new home. You’re in Manhattan, but your home prospect is in Brazil. Virtual reality can be used to tour houses from anywhere in the world.”

Of course you’ll need to be able to judge size correctly. A typical problem with VR—much like with car mirrors—is that objects appear closer than they actually are. Kuhl, who’s worked in virtual-reality spheres since his PhD, goes on to explain how his research team intentionally distorts graphics to counter the issue. Newer, cheaper displays—like the Oculus Rift—appear to have reduced or eliminated the nagging distortion problem altogether. Are the newer head-mounted displays (HMD)better? Kuhl and his team will take a closer look.

Today’s gamers aren’t content sitting with a handheld control.  They want to slap on an HMD and explore worlds under sea and in outer space. Until they crash. Into their living room wall. Solving this challenge not only has gaming implications, but safety, too. Together with PhD student Ruimin Zhang, Kuhl is studying how to walk freely around a big, virtual space in a tiny, confined room—like a dorm room. “It’s a given you’ll run into walls. We’re looking at tricks we can integrate without disrupting the user experience. For example, perhaps one real step equals two virtual steps . . . we can amplify user movement.”

13

After the gamer graduates, they may want to wear their HMD into the workplace. Kuhl says it can happen. The advantage of wearing one at work? Virtual screens and lots of them. “Just as iPads haven’t replaced desktops, I don’t think everyone will jump on board wearing a head-mounted display. But when they do, they’ll need to type, read, and talk.” Kuhl’s collaborating with colleague and text-entry expert Keith Vertanen and PhD student James Walker to address future VR needs.

“I never thought I’d be working with a text-entry researcher on projects. But that’s the nature of this work. Immersive virtual environments will impact the training, prototyping, education, and entertainment of the future and it requires a team of experts to navigate it.”