Category Archives: Seminars

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Applications of Electron Microscopy to Materials for Energy

sep18The ME-EM Graduate Seminar speaker on Thursday, September 18 at 4:00 in 103 EERC will be Dr. Dean Miller from Argonne National Laboratory.

The title of his presentation will be ‘Applications of Electron Microscopy to Materials for Energy’.

Electron microscopy has long been an important tool in understanding the structure and function of materials. Electron microscopy provides powerful capabilities for characterization of microstructure at the nanoscale. Likewise, focused ion beam instruments provide unique capability for preparation and interrogation of materials. In this presentation, several examples of the application of these approaches to energy related materials will presented. In fuel cell materials, quantitative three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructure through focused ion beam – scanning electron microscopy
has provided new insight into cathode performance. For Li-battery materials, we have developed a new way to follow structural evolution in single oxide cathode particles by in situ microscopy during electrochemical cycling that has shed new light on mechanisms for performance degradation. In high temperature superconductors, electron microscopy has revealed how subtle changes in chemistry during processing can have a profound influence on their ultimate performance. These examples illustrate some of the ways electron microscopy can provide unique and practical insight into the behavior of materials.

Dean Miller is a Senior Materials Scientist and Director of the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory. He received his B.S. in Metallurgical Engineering and Ph.D. in Materials Science, both from the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana. His research at Argonne focuses
on the characterization of complex electronic oxides including high-temperature superconductors, magnetic oxides, and advanced battery materials with a particular emphasis on characterization by electron beam methods.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: In situ Nanoscale Testing to Validate and Elucidate Mechanism for Predictive Modeling

sep11The ME-EM Graduate Seminar speaker on Thursday, September 11 at 4:00 in 103 EERC will be Dr. Kahlid Hattar from Sandia National Laboratory. The title of his presentation will be ‘In situ Nanoscale Testing to Validate and Elucidate Mechanism for Predictive Modeling’.

Topic: In situ Nanoscale Testing to Validate and Elucidate Mechanism for Predictive Modeling

Predicting performance margins of complex systems requires the development of multiscale physics based models that incorporate potential processing, microstructure, and property variations. To create the necessary set of models, a fundamental understanding of the physics governing the associated materials interplay and response in the expected environments of operation is essential. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments validated by welldesigned bulk tests provide an excellent tool to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that govern the properties of materials exposed to various environmental conditions of interest.
This presentation will demonstrate the breadth of in situ TEM research capabilities that are now available to the materials science community. These capabilities will be highlighted through a set of three experimental examples. In the first set, both the detrimental and beneficial effects of ion irradiation in face-centered cubic metal will be demonstrated.
The detrimental effect will be shown through a detailed comparison of displacement damage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high purity Cu whereas the beneficial effect will be presented for Au electrical contacts. Recent advancements in in situ TEM stages permit studies in gas and liquid environments. To demonstrate the potential of these stages, recent work done at Sandia to understand the uptake and release of hydrogen in nanoporous Pd nanoparticles and the nanoscale mechanisms of corrosion in high purity Fe will be shown. Finally, the presentation will highlight the ability of in situ ion irradiation studies to investigate the structural evolution of advanced nanoscale detectors under controlled radiation environments.
This research was partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Khalid Hattar is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff of Sandia National Laboratories. He
received a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from University of California, Santa Barbara in 2003, and a
Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 2009.
He joined the Radiation-Solids Interaction group at Sandia in December 2008. He specializes in
determining the property-microstructure relationship
for a variety of structural, electrical, and optical
materials through in situ TEM in various extreme
environments.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: From carbon nanotubes to crowd noise: An overview of interesting topics in acoustics

barnardThe ME-EM Graduate Seminar speaker on Thursday, September 4 at 4:00 in 103 EERC will be Dr. Andrew Barnard, Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University.

The title of his presentation will be ‘From carbon nanotubes to crowd noise: An overview of interesting topics in acoustics’.

Carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-films are ultra-lightweight, semi-transparent, flexible, and stretchable, films that can create sound through thermoacoustics. CNT thermophones have the potential to replace moving coil transducers and expand the applications of modern loudspeakers through “singing” fabrics. The fundamentals of CNT thermophone operation and key research challenges will be presented.
Underwater acoustics encompasses many disciplines and applications from Navy ships to oil exploration to climate change. Michigan Tech is located in an ideal location, on the shores of Lake Superior, to perform experimental underwater acoustics research through the Great Lakes Research Center (GLRC). Several topics in underwater acoustics will be discussed.
Transducer arrays and wavenumber domain signal processing provide a powerful way to visualize acoustic fields. An overview of techniques including supersonic intensity in reverberant environments (SIRE), and wavenumber processing of panel-to-panel transmission loss will be discussed. Current panel transmission loss (TL) measurement standards are woefully inadequate. Several test facilities can test the same specimen and the results can vary by more than 6 dB. Although panel TL theory is well developed, understanding of the fundamental measurement error is not. Insight into the field diffusivity in the source room will be discussed as well as paths towards an improved measurement standard. Smart controls systems are leading the way towards the realization of cyber-physical systems. An overview of the utility of FPGA-based control systems will be presented. These systems are particularly well suited for safety-critical control applications. Crowd noise is a much discussed topic in the mainstream media. Unfortunately most of the ad-hoc measurements that have been promoted are lacking in scientific rigor. Sound level measurements from Penn State football games will be presented to demonstrate how we can better measure this interesting phenomenon.

Dr. Andrew Barnard is a new assistant professor in the ME-EM department at Michigan Tech. He holds a B.S. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from MTU and a Ph.D. in Acoustics from Penn State. Dr. Barnard is Board Certified by the Institute for Noise Control Engineering and is a Certified LabVIEW Developer.
He spent the last 8 years working as a research faculty member at the Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State, specializing in structural acoustics. Dr. Barnard has general interests in mechanical vibration, noise control, and acoustics.
His specialties include dynamic test and measurement, underwater acoustic intensity, experimental modal analysis, room acoustics, acoustic material characterization, outdoor sound propagation, theoretical acoustics, signal processing, and real-time control systems. Other interests include loudspeaker design and fabrication, architectural acoustics, and engineering education.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar

The ME-EM Graduate Seminar speaker on Thursday, April 24 at 4:00 in 103 EERC will be Dr. Antonio Gauchia from MTU.

The title of his presentation will be ‘Finite Element Modeling of a Real Bus Structure: Effect of Electrified Powertrain’.

Environmental sustainability is driving powertrain design and development towards electrified vehicles. Bus powertrain has evolved from conventional internal combustion engine to hybrid powertrain. However, in terms of lateral vehicle dynamics, this type of vehicle is particularly sensitive to the height of the center of gravity. One of the most severe accidents that involve buses is rollover. Buses are especially prone to rollover due to their high ratio between centre of gravity height and wheel track. Therefore, bus safety must be re-assessed to verify that it still complies with current vehicle standards and regulations, in particular, those related to vehicle lateral dynamics. Bus manufacturers have to overcome these challenges to match standards and provide a reliable, safe and comfortable vehicle. This seminar will present the impact of powertrain design in bus rollover. It will deeply describe how to evaluate this effect from the initial finite element modeling stage of a real bus structure to the final one consisting in the evaluation of powertrain design influence in bus rollover. Two scenarios will be analyzed: a bus structure with conventional internal combustion engine components and a bus structure with hybrid powertrain components. The rollover threshold will be used to evaluate the lateral performance of each powertrain layout.

Dr. Antonio Gauchia finished his studies of General Engineering Degree in 2003 and obtained a PhD in Mechanical Engineering in 2006 at the University Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M). He teaches Vehicle Dynamics and Components, Transportation Engineering and Technical Drawing. During his 10 year experience at UC3M Mechanical Engineering Department, he has also collaborated in projects with industry and administration. His
research interests are vehicle experimental testing, vehicle dynamic simulation and bus safety rollover. He has been a Visiting Researcher at the University of Birmingham (U.K.) in collaboration with Ford. He is currently a Visiting Researcher at the ME-EM Department at Michigan Tech.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Mesoscale Perspective of Electrode Physics in Energy Storage

Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics Graduate Seminar: Dr. Partha Mukherjee, Texas A&M University; Thursday, Apr. 17, 2014 4:00 – 5:00 p.m. Room 103 EERC Bldg.

Title: Mesoscale Perspective of Electrode Physics in Energy Storage

Recent years have witnessed an enormous interest in energy storage (battery) to enable vehicle electrification, renewable energy utilization as well as accommodating an ever-increasing demand in powering myriad portable electronic devices. In particular, a critical imperative is to accelerate innovation toward improved performance, life and safety of lithium-ion batteries, the primary candidate for electric drive vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries are complex, dynamical systems which include a multitude of coupled physicochemical processes encompassing electronic/ionic/diffusive transport
in solid/electrolyte phases, electrochemical and phase change reactions and diffusion induced stress generation in hierarchical, multi-scale porous electrodes. While innovations in nanomaterials and nanoarchitectures have spurred the recent advancements, fundamental understanding of the underlying thermo-mechano-electrochemical interactions is of paramount interest. In this presentation, a
mesoscale perspective of electrode physics for lithium-ion batteries will be elucidated.

Partha P. Mukherjee is currently an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University (TAMU). Before joining TAMU in 2012, he worked for 4 years in the U.S. Department of Energy Labs, as a Staff Scientist (2009-2011) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and as a Director’s research fellow (2008-2009) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the Pennsylvania State University. Prior to PhD studies, he worked as a Consulting Engineer for 4 years at Fluent India Pvt. Ltd, a fully-owned subsidiary of Fluent Inc., currently Ansys Inc. His research interests include mesoscale physics and stochastics of transport, materials and manufacturing aspects in energy storage and conversion (batteries and fuel cells).

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Challenges that Batteries Face during Design and Development

Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics Graduate Seminar, 103 EERC, 4 pm
Lucia Gauchia Babe, Michigan Tech

Title: From the Lab to Your Car: Challenges that Batteries Face during Design and Development

Electric and hybrid vehicles are receiving substantial attention due to their high efficiency, low greenhouse emissions and lower/non dependence on petroleum. Most vehicle manufacturers are already designing and even commercializing electric vehicles. However, extensive research and development is needed in battery technology in order to guarantee it presents a long life, safe operation, competitive power and energy densities whilst being cost effective. One of the most critical aspects is the safe operation and long life characteristics, due to the fact that batteries chemistries degrade during its lifetime This seminar will present the design and development process a battery needs to follow in order to develop a battery from a single cell to the battery pack that will finally be used to power and electric or hybrid vehicle. This path is full of challenges that go from the material selection, testing procedures to assess performance and aging, safety policies, testing standards, environmental issues and cost, among others. During the seminar we will present how these challenges affect the battery development and the success of vehicle electrification.

Dr. Lucia Gauchia received her PhD degree in Electrical Engineering in December 2009 from the University Carlos III of Madrid (Spain). She was a Postdoctoral Research Associate during 2012 at McMaster University (Canada), working for the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Hybrid Powertrain in the ECE Dept. as well as in the Green Auto Powertrains Program in the ME Dept. Since Fall 2013 she is the Richard and Elizabeth Henes Assistant Professor on Energy Storage Systems, with a joint appointment between the ECE and MEEM Depts. Her research interests are focused on the testing, modeling and energy management of energy storage systems in both transport and stationary applications.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Future Fuel Economy Standards

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Dr. Robert Prucka, Clemson University, International Center for Automotive Research
Thursday, Apr. 3, 2014 4:00 – 5:00 p.m. Room 103 EERC Bldg.

Title: Automobile Engine Control and Calibration Strategies to Address Future Fuel Economy Standards

Mandated fuel economy regulations worldwide are driving unprecedented research and development for automobile powertrains. These stringent new regulations require automobile manufacturers to double their current fleet average fuel economy by 2025, while still satisfying customer performance and cost expectations. Advanced internal combustion engines are likely to be prime mover for the vast majority of automobiles in 2025 and beyond due to their relatively low cost as compared to competing technologies. To improve fuel economy and meet global energy demands the number of engine control actuators is increasing and multiple fuels are being considered. The increased engine control complexity brought about by new actuators and fuels motivates the use of model-based control methodologies over traditional map-based empirical approaches. Purely physics based control techniques have the potential to decrease calibration burdens, but must be complex to capture non-linear engine behavior with low computational requirements. This talk will discuss two examples of on-going research related to engine modeling and control system development at Clemson University. First, a semiphysical approach to combustion phasing control for multi-fuel adaptive engines will be examined. This work is intended to adapt to fuel behavior and maintain proper spark timing on-the-fly when fuel type changes. The second example will be focused on the implementation of model predictive control (MPC) to improve engine response during a transmission shift.

Dr. Robert Prucka is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Automotive Engineering at the Clemson University – International Center for Automotive Research. His research interests include the design, performance, control, calibration, and emissions of advanced internal combustion engines. He has extensive engine testing experience, including dynamometer cell design and advanced instrumentation development. Currently, he is developing experimental techniques, simulations and control strategies for advanced high degree of freedom spark-ignition engines to improve fuel economy and reduce time to market. He also performs research related to the performance aftermarket for SEMA member companies. Dr. Prucka teaches two graduate level engine combustion and emissions courses that incorporate fundamental engineering principles, experimental work, and 1-D engine simulation software. He is the faculty advisor for Clemson University’s Formula and Baja SAE student competition teams, and the Director of the Brooks Institute for Motorsports at Clemson University. He has three degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Michigan; PhD (2008), MSE (2004) and BSE. (2000). Prior to joining Clemson Robert has worked for the Ford Motor Company and as an independent consultant for racing engine companies.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Relevant Research Areas in Heavy-Duty Engines

The Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics Graduate Seminar:
Thursday, March 26, 2014 4:00 – 5:00 p.m. Room 103 EERC Bldg.
Dr. William de Ojeda, Navistar

Title: Relevant Research Areas in Heavy-Duty Engines

The drivers for technologies in the Heavy Duty truck market are cleaner emission regulations and higher fuel efficiency standards. This presentation will illustrate how increased engine efficiencies have been attained by more capable injection and charge air systems, while at the same time engine designers work to increase the mechanical limits of the engine to allow operation at higher compression ratios and higher peak cylinder pressures. Reduction of parasitic losses and effective designs to recover the heat energy are also active areas of development. Increased efficiency is accompanied by highly integrated emission reduction technologies. Effective operation of these aftertreatment units require strict thermal management and this presentation will provide insight from novel approaches such as provided by variable valve timing over conventional techniques that require excess fuel. Finally, the area of fuels opens new possibilities for advanced combustion modes. The use of natural gas with Diesel pilot ignition, or gasoline like fuels with Diesel, of oxygenated fuels like Dimethyl Ether represent current areas of research and development and will be briefly reviewed here.
Further advances in HD powertrains with these new fuels will require continuous aligning and successful migration of basic research into the applied work of industry.

Dr. de Ojeda is a senior engineer in Powertrain Group at Navistar where he has led several advanced engine development programs. More recently he directed Navistar’s High Efficiency Vehicle-Engine Supertruck DOE Program based on the Navistar MAXXFORCE13 engine. Dr. de Ojeda holds multiple patents and publications in the
area of electro-hydraulics, variable valve train systems, combustion and controls. He has a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from The Cooper Union in New York, a M.S. in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from The University of Virginia and a Ph.D. in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Signatures of Surface Moving Targets within Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

The ME-EM Graduate Seminar guest speaker on Thursday, March 20 at 4:00 in 103 EERC will be Dr. David Garren from the Naval Postgraduate School.

The title of his presentation will be ‘Signatures of Surface Moving Targets within Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery’.

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) enables accurate collection of imagery data in all weather conditions, day or night. SAR image formation yield well-focused imagery of geophysical scenes, since the radar signal processing uses a filtering process that is matched to the radar echoes from stationary scattering centers within the scene. However, moving targets yield a signal mismatch in the processing and thus appear defocused, wherein the majority of the smearing occurs in the radar cross-range direction. This current investigation presents methods for analytically predicting the detailed shape of the smear signatures for surface targets with arbitrary motion in spotlight SAR imagery. This analysis considers the standard collection geometry in which the radar sensor moves with constant speed and heading on a level flight path, with radar beam-pattern pointed perpendicular to the direction of flight. Examples in which a target moves with constant speed and heading yield smear shapes that are simply curved, as with a parabola. However, complicated smear shapes can be obtained for cases of non-uniform target motion, as with a target that is undergoing a braking maneuver. The current investigation develops accurate equations for predicting the shapes of mover signatures based upon input values for the target motion. This predictive capability offers the potential of providing insight into the details of the target motion based upon mover signatures that are observed within SAR imagery.

Professor Garren is an Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the Naval Postgraduate School – National Capital Region. He has over twenty years of experience in applied research in various disciplines, including radar, image processing, and signal processing. He has over thirty-five research publications in journals and conference proceedings, and he holds seven U.S. Patents. Professor Garren received the Ph.D. degree in 1991 from the College of William and Mary.

ME-EM Graduate Seminar: Turning Power Distribution Feeders into Microgrids

The Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics Graduate Seminar Series:
Thursday, Mar. 6, 2013 4:00 – 5:00 p.m. Room 103, EERC Bldg.
Professor Andrea Mammoli, Director of the Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, University of New Mexico

Title: Turning Power Distribution Feeders into Microgrids: Challenges & Opportunities

Photovoltaic power generation is almost at grid parity. Electric vehicles are gaining popularity. Smart meters, smart thermostats and many other clever devices are being installed at rapidly increasing rates, replacing old equipment. At the same time, every time bad weather happens, large parts of the grid fail, and days go by before normality is restored. Even houses with undamaged rooftop photovoltaic systems have no power! Our increased reliance on electricity to drive all kinds of devices and machinery has, in fact, made us more vulnerable to disruptions in service. An important reason for this state of affairs is that the grid is not taking advantage of the information that is available through these myriad devices, and is operating largely as it has been for decades. On the other hand, managing information from millions of devices is not something utility companies are able or willing to do. A possible solution is to localize both information management and distributed power generation at the distribution feeder level, turning it into a microgrid. This would be able to provide basic services when islanded from the grid, and also to provide ancillary services to the grid as needed to help prevent grid-wide disruption. The problem is one of resource management: how much local generation is needed, how much and what storage, and how is power flow managed and coordinated? Also, what are the changes to infrastructure that would be needed to make all power distribution feeders into microgrids? Some of the answers will be provided as a result of a research program that started in New Mexico several years ago at Mesa del Sol, a Greenfield development south of Albuquerque that will ultimately be the home to 100,000 residents, who will live, work and play there. Studio14, a power distribution feeder that connects various innovative distributed power system, is used as a basis for studying how we can go from 19th century power to 21st century power. In this talk, we will provide examples from several ongoing projects that show how it is possible to achieve the goal of a clean, resilient power system at reasonable cost.

Andrea A. Mammoli is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Director of the Center for Emerging Energy Technologies at the University of New Mexico. He also holds a secondary appointment in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Mammoli obtained his Bachelor of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at the University of Western Australia. After two years as Director funded postdoctoral fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in 1997 Mammoli joined the University of New Mexico as Research Assistant
Professor. Until 2004, Mammoli conducted research in flow of heterogeneous materials, using both experimental techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, particle image velocimetry and rheometry) as well as high-performance direct numerical simulation using primarily boundary element techniques. Stimulated by a DOE-sponsored project on CO2 sequestration, and by a sabbatical year at the Università Politecnica delle Marche in Italy, in 2005 Mammoli steered his research activities to the area of energy systems, beginning with a project to refurbish and modernize the solar-assisted HVAC in the UNM Mechanical Engineering building. This initial effort spun off many related projects, dealing with the interaction between buildings and the electric power grid, especially concerning how buildings can enable higher levels of renewable energy from all sources. Mammoli collaborates with the utility industry and national laborarories (Sandia, Berkeley and Los Alamos) on various demonstration projects and testbeds designed to bring new technologies to mainstream operations.