Category Archives: Seminars

GMES Lecture: Hematite Formation – Metamorphic, Tectonic and Hydrothermal Controls

feb16Geological and Mining Engineering Department Lecture:

Fernando R.M. Pires – UERJ (Rio de Janeiro State University) (PhD MTU, 1979)
Monday – February 16 at 3:00 p.m., 875 Dow Environmental Sciences Bldg. All are welcome!

Fernando R.M. Pires – UERJ (Rio De Janeiro State University) (PhD MTU, 1979) Pires presented a Lecture: "Hematite Formation - Metamorphic, Tectonic and Hydrothermal Controls"; Dr Jorma Kalliokoski was his doctoral advisor at Michigan Tech;
Fernando R.M. Pires – UERJ (Rio De Janeiro State University) (PhD MTU, 1979) Pires presented a Lecture: "Hematite Formation – Metamorphic, Tectonic and Hydrothermal Controls"; Jorma Kalliokoski was his doctoral advisor at Michigan Tech;

Quadrilatero Ferrifero (QF) displays an astonishing morphology consisting of high elevation peaks built in itabirite, massive, compact and/or banded laminated hematite, brecciated hematite and also composed of quartzites and itacolomites (flexible quartzite) at Caraça and Itacolomi Peaks in altitudes over 6 000 feet or 3 000m. The origin of the itabirite which presents different compositions exhibits a yellow, fine-grained, very hard and finely disseminated magnetite in a rock similar to the Minnesota taconite, possibly a volcanic origin. Predominant type, the siliceous itabirite is a BIF, a metamorphic rock largely distributed in QF containing numerous hematite bodies. Itabirite is a banded/laminated rock, with Fe-oxides (magnetite and hematite)-quartz-amphiboles and pyroxenes (grunerite, cummingtonite, actinolite-tremolite, riebeckite, aegirine) distributed into grunerite, cummingtonite and actinolite-tremolite zones. Garnet appears at higher grade and hypersthene under the highest metamorphic zone outside QF. Hematite forms concordant bodies displaying different types of structure mostly banded and laminated, schistose, micaceous, foliated formed during sin-metamorphic deformation produced by strong mylonitic process. Microscopic studies demonstrated that the hematite laths are arranged in LPO (lattice preferred orientation) or GSPO (grain shape preferred orientation). Banding/lamination (S0-planes) is deformed in recumbent folds with axial planes (S1) refolded with axial planes (S2) exhibiting sigmoidal structure, coplanar micro-breccia, hematite boudins cemented by hematite, pinch-and-swell, meso- and micro-folded specular hematite and mylonitic texture is common. Blue dust hematite was formed along extremely deformed and squeezed hematite along mylonitic zones. Large masses of isotropic, compact and massive hematite produced by regional hydrothermal process and meso- and micro-brecciated hematite cemented by hematite or quartz represent second or third generation of hematite. “Espelho de macaco” or monkey’s mirror which represents non deformed, perfectly crystallized hematite is found within metric pockets in the itabirite or within pods in BT (brown terrena) associated with quartz, imperial topaz, kaolinite and muscovite. Chemical potential diagrams µH2O-µSiO2 applied to the metamorphic reactions and µH2O-µH+ adapted to the hydrothermal condition, respectively, such as 7 Fe3O4+ 8 SiO2 + H2O = 7 Fe2O3 + Fe7Si8O22(OH)2 representing destabilization of magnetite and 2Fe3O4 + H2O = 3 Fe2O3 + H+, are applied in both metamorphic and hydrothermal situations. Apparently magnetite constitutes a primary phase and tends to succumb. Fluid inclusions in quartz related to hematite and internal process of oxidation in LWR (Light Water Reactors), allowed the preparation of PT-diagrams which indicated 2500C-3000C and 2-4kbar. Under metamorphic conditions of granulite facies hematite is not stable and hypersthene-magnetite pair is common.

Fernando R.M. Pires Family with  Jorma Kalliokoski
Fernando R.M. Pires Family with Jorma Kalliokoski

Lecture: Using Mineral Spectroscopy for Geothermal Exploration

calvinGeological and Mining Engineering Department Lecture:
Dr. Wendy Calvin, Professor of Geophysics & Remote Sensing
Director, Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, University of Nevada – Reno
“Using Mineral Spectroscopy for Geothermal Exploration”
Friday – February 13 at 4:00 p.m., 642 Dow Environmental Sciences Bldg.
Visiting Women & Minority Lecturer/Scholar Series funded by: A grant to the Office of Institutional Equity from the State of Michigan’s King-Chavez-Parks Initiative, the EPSSI and Geological and Mining Engineering Departments of Michigan Tech University; Reception to follow in the Dow 6th floor Lakeside Atrium

EPSSI Seminar: Shock Tube Recreations of Shock Waves and Jets Generated During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions

The Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences Institute
proudly presents:
Ezequiel Medici, MTU ME-EM Research Engineer
The EPSSI seminar for Monday, December 1, 4:00 p.m., M&M U113

“Shock Tube Recreations of Shock Waves and Jets Generated During Explosive Volcanic Eruptions”

Abstract: At the beginning of a suddenly explosive volcanic eruptions two types of phenomena can be observed, the formation of a shock wave immediately followed by a supersonic jet of expanding vapor-solid-liquid mixture. The intensity of the shock wave and the structure of the supersonic jet can carry a significant amount of information about the intensity and the dynamics of the volcanic eruption. Despite the hazard they represent to the immediate surrounding area of the volcano vent, these atmospheric shock waves and the subsequent sonic wave can be safely measured at a long distance from the vent. This characteristic makes the measurement of shock/sonic waves suitable for safe, real-time remote sensing of the conditions at the volcanic vent during the eruption. Preliminary results, based on the experiment performed on the shock tube, indicate a strong correlation between the energy released by the eruption, calculated by standard methods post eruption, and the intensity of the shock wave as measured through its pressure field. This correlation could ultimately lead to a more reliable model of shock/sound wave propagation which will serve as an early warning system for the air traffic control.

Immediately after the shock wave, an over pressurized jet mixture of vapor, solid particles, and liquid begins to expand. This mixture typically contains a relatively high concentration of solid particles of different size. To study the coupled interaction between the expanding gas and the particles, a series of analog explosive volcanic experiments using the atmospheric shock tube were performed. High-speed shadowgraph imaging of the expanding jet mixtures is recorded for different initial jet energy, particle sizes and particle concentrations. The study and observations of the interaction between the mixture of expanding gas and particles can elucidate the mechanisms acting during the initial stage of the formation of ash plumes or pyroclastic flows.

Rail Transportation Seminar: Railway Track Structures Research at Tampere University of Technology

sep8Rail Transportation Program and Environmental Engineering Geologists AEG Michigan Tech Student Chapter present Dr. Pauli Kolisoja Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in Finland presented a seminar on rail research at TUT at Michigan Tech on Monday, Sept. 9, 12-1 p.m. at DOW 875.

The title of the seminar is: “Railway Track Structures Research at Tampere University of Technology”   Continue reading

Environmental Engineering Seminar: Nuts and Bolts of Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

Environmental Engineering Seminar: Nuts and Bolts of Unconventional Oil and Gas Development including all you might like to know about the technology and practice of hydraulic fracturing
Wayne D Pennington, Interim Dean, College of Engineering, Michigan Technological University
Mon Mar 24, 2014 3pm – 4pm, Dow 642
Watch the seminar Video on Vimeo: Unconventional Oil and Gas Development: Technology and Practice of Hydraulic Fracturing

Over the past couple of decades, technology has been developed to produce oil and gas from geological formations that had been overlooked previously due to the lack of appropriate engineering techniques for those types of formations. As a result, the energy picture for the USA and for the world has been seriously modified, and the impact is being felt.   Continue reading

Seminar: Ice, Rocks, and Robots, Oh My!–Paving the Yellow-Brick Road to Europa

Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences Seminar
Friday, March 21, 3:05-3:55 pm, Dow 610
Ice, Rocks, and Robots, Oh My!–Paving the Yellow-Brick Road to Europa
Victoria Siegel, Ph.D. Student
GMES, Michigan Technological University
Astrobiologists agree that Jupiter’s moon Europa is one of the most promising places where our solar system might harbor life (besides Earth, of course). Data from Galileo and Hubble’s recent images of possible water vapor plumes escaping from Europa’s surface suggest that a liquid water ocean lies concealed beneath the moon’s thick ice shell. Over the past ten years, NASA has funded several projects to investigate autonomous systems we might use to explore this strange and challenging environment. As they are developed, these robots are put to good, practical use in terrestrial Europa-analog environments. From an Alaskan glacier, to flooded sinkholes in Mexico, to an ice-covered sea in Antarctica, these ‘bots are helping us explore, map, and understand extreme environments and life forms on Earth–all the while bringing us closer to making Europa sub-surface exploration a reality. If you think the Curiosity Rover is wild (it is), come see what planetary exploration could look like in the future.

Environmentally and Socially Responsible Mining Presentation

Hannah White, public outreach manager at Northwest Mining Association, a national nonprofit, nonpartisan trading association representing the entire mining life cycle, from exploration to reclamation and closure. Their purpose is to advocate and advance, educate, and foster and promote environmentally and socially responsible mining. She spoke to students in a seminar on November 19th. More info

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GMES Seminar: Linking mantle dynamics to plate tectonics

GMES Seminar: Linking mantle dynamics to plate tectonics

Trond H. Torsvik, Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics (CEED), University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway; Friday, November 1, 2013, Dow 610

The calibration of longitude in the mid-eighteenth century by the invention of a sea-going chronometer gave mariners confidence that they could reliably calculate their absolute position on the Earth’s surface. Until recently, Earth scientists have been in the comparable position of having no way of calculating the longitudes of continents before the Cretaceous, leaving paleomagnetism, which cannot determine longitude, as the only quantitative means of positioning continents on the globe before that time. However, by choosing a reference continent that has moved the least longitudinally (i.e. Africa), longitudinal uncertainty can be minimized. The analytical trick is to rotate all paleomagnetic poles to Africa and calculate a global apparent polar wander path in African co-ordinates, which serves as the basis for subsequent global reconstructions. This method is dubbed the ‘zero-longitudinal motion’ approximation for Africa, and has allowed us to confidently estimate true polar wander (TPW) since Pangea formation (320 Ma), and to demonstrate that ancient large igneous provinces and kimberlites have been sourced by plumes from the edges of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) on the core-mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. Using this surface-to-CMB correlation and a new iterative approach for defining a palaeomagnetic reference frame corrected for TPW, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time that maintains the remarkable link between surface volcanism and the LLSVPs. For the Paleozoic we have for the first time identified several phases of slow, oscillatory TPW (less than 1 degree/Myr) during which the Earth’s axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. We model ten phases of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations since 540 Ma, which can be interpreted as oscillatory swings approximately around the same axis (11 degrees East at equator). Net TPW angles peaked at 22 degrees in the Mesozoic and 62 degrees in the Paleozoic, and paleomagnetic and TPW-corrected (mantle) reconstructions therefore differ significantly in the early Paleozoic.


Seminar: Oil Spill Response Experience: Exxon Valdez to BP Deepwater Horizon

In an engaging lecture, Tina Behr-Andres will share her experience advising the Federal Government’s Science Team for the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill Response. The presentation, entitled, “Oil Spill Response Experience: Exxon Valdez to BP Deepwater Horizon,” will be held on Tuesday, April 23, from 4 p.m. to 5p.m., Dow 642.

Behr-Andres holds over twenty years of professional experience in engineering academe, private-sector technical consulting and national laboratory research management. She specializes in management of legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production; marine and terrestrial oil spill response; industrial and hazardous waste management and wastewater treatment; and contaminated site remediation. Currently, Behr-Andres is an Executive Advisor to the principal associate director of science, technology and engineering at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

This presentation is sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Tech’s Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, and Michigan Tech’s Office for Institutional Diversity.

Seminar: ‘Lessons from Yucca Mountain Standards, Regulations & Performance Assessments

Professor Rodney C. Ewing, Edward H. Kraus Distinguished University Professor
Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan
‘Lessons from Yucca Mountain Standards, Regulations & Performance Assessments”
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was scheduled to be a geological repository storage facility for high-level radioactive waste until it was defunded in 2010. This seminar is sponsored by the A. E. Seaman Mineral Museum and hosted by the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences. There will be a social after the talk in the Dow sixth-floor atrium (lakeside).
Friday – March 22, 3:00 to 4:00 pm DOW 642; Social to follow in 6th floor atrium, lakeside