Category: Research

In Print: Carter Paper Published in Gastronomy and Tourism

Angie Carter and Tara L. Bal are co-authors of a paper published in Gastronomy and Tourism. Siona Beaudoin, a Lake Linden-Hubbell graduate, is also a co-author of the paper.

The paper, titled “Berries without Bugs: Recreational Foraging and a Fruit Fly Threat in Rural Michigan” presents a survey of berry foragers in the Houghton/Keweenaw area, their practices harvesting fruit, and their baseline knowledge about a relatively new invasive fruit fly, spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). Understanding the cultural, economic, and potential human health impacts of berry pests like spotted wing drosophila is necessary to inform adaptive foraging and harvesting practices and further spread prevention when possible.

About Angie Carter

Angie Carter
Angie Carter
Associate Professor, Environmental/Energy Justice

Angie Carter is an associate professor of environmental/energy justice in the Department of Social Sciences. An environmental and public sociologist and scholar-activist, Carter researches intersections of landscape, identity, agrifood-energy systems, and social change.

About the Social Sciences Department at Michigan Tech

Michigan Tech’s Department of Social Sciences offers bachelor of science degrees in AnthropologyPolicy and Community DevelopmentSustainability Science and Society, and Social Science, along with a bachelor of arts degree in History. Our graduate program includes masters and doctoral degrees in Environmental and Energy Policy and Industrial Heritage and Architecture (the only one of its kind in the world), and a master’s in Sustainable Communities. Plus, you can get a graduate certificate in Public Policy by taking three courses in just one term.

Questions? Contact us at Follow us on FacebookInstagram and Twitter for the latest happenings.

Robins Presents Kapok Paper

Jonathan Robins presented a paper on the history of kapok and kapok substitutes at the 2024 American Society for Environmental History Conference. The Conference convened April 3-7 in Denver, Colorado.

Kapok is a tree fiber once widely used for stuffing mattresses, pillows and life jackets. However material shortages during World War II inspired new research into artificial materials. Unfortunately the newer materials eventually displaced kapok and other natural fibers from key markets. The research is part of a larger project on historical transitions from biomaterials to synthetics in fiber-consuming industries like rope, fishing nets and insulation.

About Jonathan Robins

Jonathan E. Robins
Jonathan E. Robins
Associate Professor of History

Jonathan Robins is an award-winning historian of commodities, environments, and politics. He has published on oils and fats, fiber crops and textile industries, food and consumption, economic development, and environmental and labor history broadly. His current research interests include waste and waste landscapes, technological transitions in natural and synthetic fibers, and agroforestry. He serves on the steering committee of the Commodities of Empire project and as global book review editor for Agricultural History.

About the Social Sciences Department at Michigan Tech

Michigan Tech’s Department of Social Sciences offers bachelor of science degrees in AnthropologyPolicy and Community DevelopmentSustainability Science and Society, and Social Science, along with a bachelor of arts degree in History. Our graduate program includes masters and doctoral degrees in Environmental and Energy Policy and Industrial Heritage and Architecture (the only one of its kind in the world), and a master’s in Sustainable Communities. Plus, you can get a graduate certificate in Public Policy in by taking three courses in just one term.

Questions? Contact us at Follow us on FacebookInstagram and Twitter for the latest happenings.

In Print: Wellstead Published in Policy Design and Practice

Wellstead Policy Design
Adam M. Wellstead
Professor of Public Policy, Social Sciences

Adam Wellstead (SS) is a co-author of a paper published in Policy Design and Practice. The paper is titled “Public Value and Procedural Policy Instrument Specifications in ‘Design for Service.'”

Michael Howlett of Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada, is the other co-author of the paper.

Wellstead joined Michigan Tech’s Social Sciences Department in 2011 after a 15-year career with the Canadian federal government. Wellstead’s background in policy and public management contributes to the research and teaching in the Environmental Policy Program. Additionally, his research interests include investigating multi-level governance arrangements in the natural resource sector, measuring policy capacity and evidence-based policy-making, policy mechanisms, and theories of the policy process. In addition, Wellstead enjoys developing and conducting (primarily online) surveys and undertaking structural equation modeling using LISREL.

About the Social Sciences Department at Michigan Tech

Michigan Tech’s Department of Social Sciences offers bachelor of science degrees in AnthropologyPolicy and Community DevelopmentSustainability Science and Society, and Social Science, along with a bachelor of arts degree in History. Our graduate program includes master’s and doctoral degrees in Environmental and Energy Policy and Industrial Heritage and Architecture (the only one of its kind in the world), and a master’s in Sustainable Communities. Additionally, you can get a graduate certificate in Public Policy in by taking three courses in just one term.

Questions? Contact us at Follow us on FacebookInstagram and Twitter for the latest happenings.

In Media: Mark Rhodes on the Role of Coal in Industrial Heritage and National Identity in Wales

Mark Rhodes
Mark Rhodes

Mark Rhodes, assistant professor of geography was a guest on the Tourism Geographies Podcast last Friday (Nov. 24). The episode centered on a recently published paper co-authored by Rhodes which traces the role of coal in industrial heritage and national identity in Wales over the past 60 years. Discussion topics included the value of historical and contemporary research at heritage sites; how such work can reveal the complexity of identity; and how nations, memories, and our collective heritage change with time, political shifts, and cultural expression.

About the Social Sciences Department at Michigan Tech

Michigan Tech’s Department of Social Sciences offers bachelor of science degrees in AnthropologyPolicy and Community DevelopmentSustainability Science and Society, and Social Science, along with a bachelor of arts degree in History. Our graduate program includes masters and doctoral degrees in Environmental and Energy Policy and Industrial Heritage and Architecture (the only one of its kind in the world), and a master’s in Sustainable Communities. Plus, you can get a graduate certificate in Public Policy in by taking three courses in just one term.

Questions? Contact us at Follow us on FacebookInstagram and Twitter for the latest happenings.

Keweenaw Time Traveler Wins Historical Society of Michigan Best Website Award

The Keweenaw Time Traveler won the Historical Society of Michigan (HSM) 2023 State History Award in the category of Websites. This prestigious award recognizes the hard work of the team led by Don LaFreniere, Sarah Scarlett, and John Arnold. The internet has transformed the world of historical research. The Keweenaw Time Traveler uses spatial data infrastructure to create a website that allows researchers to access detailed information through a “deep map” with layers of historical data and maps. It is also interactive, allowing professionals and amateurs alike to contribute data to the site. The digital archive covers Michigan’s “Copper Country” from 1880 to 1970 and will continue to grow in the future.

Don Lafreniere
Don Lafreniere

“There is so much that goes into a project of this scale and the fact we have been recognized by the Historical Society of Michigan is a testment to every contributor,” said Don Lafreniere, Social Sciences Department chair, professor of geography and GIS, and director of the Geospatial Research Facility. “Our current project team members and our time traveler alumni have contributed thousands of hours in the collection, digitizing and linking historical records that make up our massive database as well as the digitization and referencing of the hundreds of historic maps present on the Keweenaw Time Traveler.”

Sarah Scarlett
Photo: Keweenaw Time Traveler

Lafreniere is thankful for the generous support of project funders including the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Council of Library and Information Resources, as well as support from the Geospatial Research Facility and the Great Lakes Research Center at Michigan Technological University. “Of course, none of this would be possible without our heritage partners and the thousands of individuals who use the Keweenaw Time Traveler to explore and share memories of our Copper Country past. I thank them so much for their support!”

The Keweenaw Time Traveler team will be recognized during the 149th Annual Meeting and Michigan History Conference on September 22-24, 2023. The Society presents the State History Awards every year to individuals and organizations that have made outstanding contributions to the appreciation, collection, preservation, and/or promotion of state and local history. The awards are the highest recognition presented by HSM, the state’s official historical society and oldest cultural organization. 

The Historical Society of Michigan is the state’s oldest cultural organization, founded in 1828. A nongovernmental nonprofit, the Society focuses on publications, conferences, education, awards and recognition programming, and support for local history organizations to preserve and promote Michigan’s rich history.

Completing the Industrial Heritage Narrative Puzzle

Larissa Juip
Larissa Juip, industrial narrative researcher and Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Innovation Fellow. Courtesy of Amethyst Imagery (Hancock, MI)

Can you complete a jigsaw puzzle without using all the pieces? Similarly, you cannot accurately complete the industrial heritage narrative of a place without incorporating the knowledge and voice of all actors. Each voice represents diverse perspectives, experiences, and contributions across a wide range of those who lived it. Each voice is a single piece in the jigsaw puzzle of that narrative. But the narrative is often recorded and written by those in positions of power and privilege. This leaves out the voices of underrepresented groups, including women, Indigenous people, and others who have faced discrimination and marginalization.

Often the challenge is how do you acquire narratives from underrepresented groups? Simply asking may not work. Individuals may have other priorities. They might be distrustful of historians like those who have misrepresented them in the past. They may be unresponsive to a stranger who has yet to build trust with them or their community.

Adding Indigenous and Descendant Voices to Industrial Heritage Narratives

Larissa Juip, Industrial Heritage and Archaeology PhD candidate is looking to change that. She is one of 45 2023 Mellon/The American Council of Learned Societies (Mellon/ACLS) Dissertation Innovation Fellowship recipients. Each fellow receives a $50,000 award, consisting of a $40,000 stipend for the fellowship year; $8,000 for project-related research, training, professional development, and travel expenses; and a $2,000 stipend to support external mentorship and advising that offers critical perspectives and expertise on the fellow’s project.

Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Innovation Fellowship awardees embark on innovative dissertation research projects. Larissa’s “Re-Storying an Industrial Landscape: Moving Beyond Traditional Approaches to Heritage Interpretation” project seeks to show Indigenous methodologies of storywork and photovoice can be used for traditional knowledge sharing to advance inclusive, equitable heritage interpretation practices with Indigenous and Descendant communities to produce an integrated model and framework for industrial heritage sites to co-create heritage interpretation. Larissa’s research will be guided by the Two Row Wampum Belt. It is a symbol of peace, equity, and respect that affirms the spirit and intent of a relationship. 

This is among the highest honors a graduate student can receive.

Don Lafreniere, Social Sciences department chair, Michigan Tech

“The American Council of Learned Societies is the preeminent organization that promotes American scholarship in the humanities and related social sciences,” said Don Lafreniere, chair of Michigan Technological University’s Social Sciences department. “Larissa is a rising leader in the field and this honor highlights the importance of her work and the quality of scholarship produced by students in Industrial Heritage and Archaeology.”

Larissa observed how industrial heritage sites in Minnesota’s ‘Iron Range’ often excluded Indigenous and Descendant community narratives detailing their relationships with iron mining. She will explore the following: What relationships do Indigenous and Descendant community members have with historic and contemporary iron mining in Minnesota’s ‘Iron Range,’ and how can industrial heritage sites co-create interpretation through inclusive, equitable engagement practices to tell these stories?

Making Industrial Heritage Narratives More Inclusive

The exclusion of narratives in heritage interpretation is neither a new problem nor rare.

Larissa Juip

“This research investigates the specific case of mining heritage in the Vermilion and Mesabi [Minneota mining region] and asks how heritage sites in these landscapes can be more inclusive of the multitude of existing narratives,” Larissa explains. “First, these narratives must be revealed: what relationships do Indigenous and Descendant community members have with iron mining (historic and contemporary) in Minnesota’s ‘Iron Range’? Second, relationships between heritage sites and communities must be formed: how can industrial heritage sites in Minnesota’s ‘Iron Range’ co-create heritage interpretation that tells these stories? Finally, an example of best practices must be developed to promote this co-creation: what does an integrated model and framework for inclusive, equitable engagement practices look like? By answering these three questions, this research works to understand how heritage sites can move beyond traditional approaches to heritage interpretation to present more inclusive and equitable site narratives.”

Larissa Juip looking at quarry ruins on a hillside
Overlooking the Dinorwic Quarry in Llanberis, Wales, UK on a research trip in August 2022

Larissa’s work is notable on many levels. “It is particularly impactful for a student at Michigan Tech to be recognized for their efforts by the American Council of Learned Societies,” said Will Cantrell, Associate Provost and Dean of the Graduate School at Michigan Tech. “This award, sponsored by the Mellon Foundation, is designed to foster scholars who can build a more diverse, inclusive, and equitable academy, and I am particularly pleased that Larissa has been recognized for this. It is a testament to her, to the guidance from her advisor, Dr. Baird, and to the support from her department, Social Sciences.”

Larissa’s project will go a long way to help others create more inclusive industrial heritage narratives. “Larissa is part of the new wave of engaged scholars in the academy that are creating new methodologies that create equitable and inclusive places,” said Melissa F. Baird, Associate Professor of Anthropology at Michigan Tech. “Her project centers on equitable histories – that is, restorying the industrial landscape histories of a historical mining region in Minnesota. Until now, most of these stories have focused on stories of men and might, histories of technological innovations, and the story of industry over the environment. Her work broadens these interpretations, recenters community experiences, and assesses how communities living and working in these regions understand and navigate these histories. She is truly extraordinary, and I feel honored to work with and learn from her.”

Q&A with Larissa Juip

We had a chance to sit down with Larissa, and delve deeper into the fellowship, her research, her plans for the future, and how she will help to complete the industrial heritage narrative puzzle.

Q: What does this fellowship mean to you? What will it help you to achieve?

Larissa: Receiving this fellowship means several things to me. As an Indigenous scholar, my approach to research often falls outside of the ‘norm’ for academia, so having my work recognized by Mellon/ACLS is huge in terms of validating my non-traditional approach to research. The fellowship also shows how timely and valuable my research is. Having this fellowship provides me with the opportunity to practice the kind of meaningful relationship-building that I had hoped to do by helping to extend my research timeline so that the communities I am engaged with do not feel rushed in the relationship and research process.

I feel very lucky to have received this fellowship. I also want to acknowledge the help and support from Drs. Melissa Baird, Angie Carter, and Valoree Gagnon for helping me write the proposal for this award, and my committee as a whole for helping me to frame my research and develop my unique approach over the last few years.

Larissa Juip

Q: Please tell me about your research? What is it about? What are you hoping to learn? How will society benefit?

Larissa talking to two indigenous students in the forest
Working as a Minnesota DNR State Park Naturalist at Lake Bemidji State Park in 2018 with a group of Indigenous students from Leech Lake Tribal College.

Larissa: My research is about uncovering hidden narratives from Indigenous and Descendant communities of Minnesota’s ‘Iron Range’ about iron mining (past, present, and future). Ultimately, I hope to collaboratively produce an example of best practices for engaging with these communities for improving the industrial heritage interpretation that is currently in existence, as well as future interpretive ventures. I believe this research is beneficial for several reasons. First and foremost, it works to uncover hidden narratives that have been excluded from heritage interpretation; this exclusion further dispossesses Indigenous and Descendant communities. Second, it promotes more holistic heritage interpretation that promotes diversity and truth-telling at heritage sites. Finally, the example of best practices has the potential to be used by other systematically marginalized communities with relationships to industry to share their own narratives at industrial heritage sites.

Q: The Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Innovation Fellowship program is designed to support emerging scholars as they pursue bold and innovative research in the humanities and interpretive social sciences. What is bold about your research?

Larissa: I believe that the ‘bold’ part of my research is threefold. First, my research is built on the framework of the Two Row Wampum Paradigm, a research framework and methodology that centers relationships, promotes intergenerational learning and sharing, flattens power dynamics between researchers and community members by elevating community members to co-researcher, and recognizes that researchers and communities can engage in research together with different goals and not be in conflict.

Second, the combined methods of Indigenous storywork and photovoice bridge traditional methods of knowledge sharing through storytelling with the physical remains of industry on the landscape, creating space for stories that coexist alongside ruins in a way that is currently not present in industrial heritage sites in my research area. Finally, I am promoting a culturally competent informed consent process by using tobacco as a traditional method of asking co-researchers to share their knowledge and the creation of a wampum belt as a method of obtaining and recording informed consent, as well as a traditional method of recording my research.

Q: The Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Innovation Fellowship program funds “research projects cultivating greater openness to new sources of knowledge, innovation in scholarly communication, and, above all, responsiveness to the interests and histories of people of color and other historically marginalized communities, including (but not limited to) Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, and Indigenous communities from around the world; people with disabilities; queer, trans, and gender nonconforming people; and people of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.” How does your research fit into that narrative?

Larissa: My research not only centers Indigenous research paradigms and methods, but it also centers the voices of Indigenous and Descendant communities in industrial heritage landscapes where they are frequently excluded. Typically, the narrative about industry and Indigenous Peoples presents these communities as ‘victims’ of industry, removed from their homelands or worse. The reality is that in many cases, Indigenous Peoples not only continued to live in areas where industrial activity was happening, but they often were participants in that activity in various ways; this narrative is in direct conflict with the idea that all Indigenous Peoples are environmentalists who are opposed to all forms of industry, a narrative that dispossesses both historic and contemporary populations that have a more complex relationship with industrial activities like mining.

Q: What do you hope to do once you receive your PhD?

Larissa: I am very passionate about being an educator. I have served in a variety of formal and informal education roles previously, from licensed teacher to naturalist to heritage interpreter to environmental education lesson writer. I think there are a lot of things I can do with a PhD, but my goal is ultimately to be able to continue to serve the communities that I work with through my capacity as an educator, especially in higher education. I think that serving as an educator in this capacity provides me with the opportunity to help inform the next generation of researchers, heritage practitioners, and community leaders to address some of the gaps in our current approaches to heritage interpretation.

Q: Why did you choose to study here at Michigan Tech?

Larissa: Michigan Tech was actually on my radar when I pursued my master’s degree, and I may have chosen it if I had a connection at that point in my life to industrial heritage, but that was several years down the road. I chose Michigan Tech because I worked as an interpretive mine guide at the Soudan Underground Mine in northeastern Minnesota for several years. In this position, I built relationships with community members on the Iron Range and developed a passion for industrial heritage, but I also saw gaps in the site’s heritage interpretation that many of my non-Indigenous colleagues did not. Michigan Tech’s program was a good fit for me to propose a research project that could work towards addressing those gaps by working with faculty with a variety of research and work experiences, including work with Indigenous communities.

Larissa and James Juip with their daughter
The Juip family at Calumet Lake

Q: What do you like the most about Michigan Tech?

Larissa: Am I allowed to say that my favorite thing about Michigan Tech is the location? When I lived in Soudan previously, the community feel was something that I appreciated so much, and we’ve (my family and I) been able to experience that living in Calumet. It’s not something you can easily find in a major city. The presence of the industrial heritage on the landscape is also something I really appreciate because students in our department are able to engage with industrial heritage literally in their backyards, it’s not something abstract or far away.

Q: What piece of advice would you give to a fellow graduate student looking to acquire a Mellon/ACLS Dissertation Innovation Fellowship?

Larissa: I see a lot of graduate students kind of get ‘talked out’ of doing their research in novel ways because the faculty they work with are unfamiliar with it. Most of my committee was unfamiliar with my approach, too. So I guess my advice to other graduate students who would consider applying for this fellowship is to stand strong in the approach you want to take, which often means exerting extra effort to explain it to those around you so they have the opportunity to understand it for themselves and see the value in what you are doing. Don’t be afraid to include yourself in your research!

Q: What would you say to students interested in studying industrial heritage?

Larissa: I would tell students that are interested in studying industrial heritage to spend some time as a heritage interpreter! Especially if they live in the area, there are so many opportunities to have summer employment at an industrial heritage site, and you’ll learn a lot about industrial heritage that you can’t really learn in the classroom.

Q: What is your dream job?

Larissa pointing out features to tourists underground in the mine
Larissa worked as an interpretive mine guide at the Soudan Underground Mine

Larissa: I have several dream jobs actually, and they’re pretty tied for which I would prefer. I would love to be able to travel to different communities, all over, and help them have their stories included in industrial heritage interpretation. I would also really love to establish a Great Lakes industrial heritage consortium for industrial heritage practitioners, professionals, and students to be able to share resources and gain access to heritage interpretation training, as a space for these groups to collaborate with each other, and as an organization that could offer consulting services to help industrial heritage sites in the region meet their site-specific needs and goals for interpretation.

And I would love to find a faculty position at a university, ideally somewhere around Lake Superior. Faculty at Tech would probably be my top choice, simply because of the relationships we’ve formed and the community we’ve built. I think there’s a lot of potential here for building out an Indigenous Studies program on campus that not only offers courses, but also engages with the wider community about Indigenous topics, supports current and incoming Indigenous students by creating a community for them, and forming stronger relationships with Keweenaw Bay and Lac Vieux Desert to encourage more students from those communities to choose Tech for their education needs so they can stay closer to home.

Robert Hazen, Michigan Tech Social Sciences Major, Shares His Experiences in the Documentation of Historic Structures Course

Hello! My name is Robert Hazen, and I am a Social Sciences major here at Michigan Technological University. This summer I took the four-week course, Documentation of Historic Structures, led by Dr. Sarah Fayen Scarlett (Michigan Technological University), Dr. Hilary-Joy Virtanen (Finlandia University),
and Dr. John Arnold (Keweenaw National Historic Park) where our class was immersed in the history and documentation of the Kemppa Farm in Misery Bay.

Image of Robert Hazen presenting to the audience of Misery Bay community members.
Robert Hazen shares stories and findings with Misery Bay community members

While many of us have not done documentation work before, we all brought different skill sets to the table and were able to add new skills to our toolbox. All of us came from different backgrounds, have different experiences, and even have different perspectives—all of which are useful in an immersive class like this, especially when hashing out the historic details concerning genealogy, timelines, and land and building use. Over the course of these past four weeks, I feel like we have all grown together, and we have all worked together quite well.

While it feels like you have just met these students, time moves quickly, and we are at the end of the course. We all forged new friendships and part of me is sad that it is over. I am sad that we all did not have more time together, but I am also sad that we left some questions unanswered. When you give a presentation to a community about their community, you are coming to them with the knowledge that they may or may not know, but there are also questions that will go unanswered. I think the one thing about this work is that I am only 95% satisfied with the finished product and 5% disappointed that I can never answer every question.

For this project, I researched and put together slides for the deep-time overview of the Keweenaw Peninsula with a specific focus on Misery Bay. I used my skills as a researcher to find digitized census records, plat maps, historical aerial images, homestead deeds, genealogical records, and other historical documents. This helped guide us in developing a timeline for the Kemppa Farm but given our time restraints and research limitations—the lack of digitized records or records hidden behind a paywall—we never were able to piece together some pieces of the puzzle.

Regardless of our limitations, our class exceeded everyone’s expectations, including our own. While we can all come away with a list of different skill sets, we all should come away with viewing people, buildings, and landscapes through a different lens than those around us—appreciating the time and efforts of past people in shaping the landscape to create a life of their own.

Finally, as an Indigenous scholar, one of my goals is to highlight the importance of Indigenous land use in the Upper Peninsula, acknowledging that we are on the ceded territories of Ojibwe homelands. It is important to acknowledge and understand the importance of land for Ojibwe Peoples, especially the land around Misery Bay. While we do not know the extent of Ojibwe settlements in Misery Bay, historic maps and newfound evidence provides us with more pieces to the puzzle.

While I come away from this course with a renewed sense of appreciation of the past, it is always important to look to the future and think about historic preservation efforts for sites like the Kemppa Farm. I want to thank Dr. Sarah Fayen Scarlett, Dr. Hilary-Joy Virtanen, and Dr. John Arnold for sharing with us all their knowledge and providing us with new tools to navigate the world around us. This was an unforgettable experience, and I know that this group of students is destined to do great things with their futures. I could not be prouder of the work we all put in. Thank you!

Robert Hazen is a Social Sciences major at Michigan Technological University. He is the 2022 winner of Michigan Tech’s Outstanding Future Alumni Award given to recognize the contribution of a student volunteer who supports the Alumni Engagement mission of “Celebrating Traditions. Creating Connections.” Consideration is given to students who are making a difference, and demonstrate a commitment to the success of an existing Michigan Tech tradition, or create a new one!

Read about the field school experience Robert enjoyed.

Summer Field School Draws Together a Broad Range of Collaborators and Students Across Disciplines

Summer Field School includes 8 students from Michigan Tech and Northern Michigan; 3 Instructors; 3 generations of property owners; 6 visiting heritage professionals; 5 great days on the banks of Lake Superior; PLUS a dog and a resident turkey (!) all combined for an exciting place-based learning experience!

What does MTU History Associate Professor of History Sarah Fayen Scarlett get when she takes on leadership of the 2024 Vernacular Architecture Forum (VAF) annual conference planning committee? Well, perhaps a few headaches between now and 2024. But also, several unique opportunities to engage in local fieldwork documenting everyday buildings and their cultural meanings for people in the Keweenaw—past, and present.  She’s sharing the opportunities this responsibility brings with Upper Peninsula students and professionals. Together they’re working on publishing a conference guidebook featuring local vernacular architecture and conference tour sites. Themes include exploring cultural identity, environmental change, industrial communities, and contemporary heritage practice. Scarlett’s “Barns and Beaches” field school gave upper peninsula college students a great applied learning experience.

Image of Summer Field School students documenting Kemppa Farm
NMU student Tori Conquest takes a break from documenting the c. 1907 animal barn at Kemppa Farm in Misery Bay. Photo S F Scarlett

Barns and Beaches Field School Uses the Keweenaw Community As A Classroom

The Summer Field School attracted students in a variety of fields such as history, anthropology, folklore, and material culture studies. The June class included two Michigan Tech Social Sciences majors, an incoming Industrial Heritage & Archaeology grad student, four Northern Michigan University anthropology students, and an MTU graduate student as a teaching assistant. The four-week 3-credit course was team-taught by Scarlett, Keweenaw National Historical Park Historical Architect John Arnold (Industrial Heritage PhD 2017), and Finlandia University Finnish Studies Associate Professor and folklorist Hilary Virtanen. The instructors contributed their expertise in documenting everyday buildings and cultural landscapes. They mentored students in the collection of information from people associated with such places.

The group of eleven formed an instantly cohesive team. Their skills and interests were well-matched for the task at hand: to document and create materials describing a Finnish American homestead farm in the Misery Bay area of Toivola and an adjacent summer cottage built in the 1940s. Both properties had remained in the families that established them.

Students Develop Field Work Skills

Image of Lieutenant Dan the Turkey
Kemppa Farm resident “Lieutenant Dan” the turkey (along with Ruby the little black dog!) kept the crew on their toes around the campsite! Photo Hilary Virtanen.

During the second week, the class met at the Kemppa farm in Misery Bay, Toivola. Students camped in the farm’s front pasture, thanks to the owner and steward of the property’s heritage Luann Hayrynen. This made it convenient for students to document the Kemppa family farm and the neighboring summer cottage, Dell Shack. This intensive fieldwork was augmented by a visit to the Hanka Homestead Farm, a Finnish American homestead farm museum in Baraga County affiliated with the Keweenaw National Historical Park (KNHP) as well as lecture and demonstration visits from area professionals including KNHP staff historian Jo Holt, landscape architect Steve DeLong, Park superintendent Wendy Davis, and MTU’s geospatial scientist Dan Trepal.

Students and instructors precisely measured, photographed, and created field drawings of buildings. They conducted oral history interviews of occupants and their family members to gain insights into the history of the sites’ developments over time and their cultural significance to the families and their neighbors. And they investigated materials offered for examination by the study participants, including family photographs and documents that helped solve building history mysteries. All of this activity generated a vast amount of data. Over the final two weeks, students converted raw data into computer-generated architectural floor plans of each selected building. They deepened their understanding of the properties’ histories with creative research with archival documents, deep geological and cultural historical data, and even aerial and satellite photographs of the Misery Bay area over time.

Read about Robert Hazen’s experience as an undergraduate student in the Summer Field School

Image of a Hay Barn built in 1907
c. 1907 Hay Barn. Photo John Arnold.

Students Present Findings to the Local Community

Students acquired skills in historical architecture documentation and interpretation. They learned to conduct semi-structured oral history interviews. And they wrote interpretive content for use in the 2024 VAF guidebook. The first week centered on intensive readings, lectures, and in-class fieldwork skill-building activities in the Archaeology Lab. One highlight was a virtual visit from Professor Emerita Carol MacLennan on Indigenous land use in the Keweenaw.

During the final week of class, students prepared a group presentation of their findings for local community members at the Misery Bay School. The goals of this culminating event were to spread the word about the upcoming conference and our work at the Kemppa Farm and Dell Shack, but also to have another opportunity to learn more about these properties from people who have their own important perspectives: long-term neighbors. As a result, many stories and memories were shared over refreshments between students, property owners, and neighbors. These relationships will continue to develop as preparation for the VAF conference continues.

For more information about or to participate in the VAF conference in 2024 please contact Dr. Scarlett at

On the Road and In Print

Dr. Steven Walton presented a paper on “Allied Expositionary Forces: War Trophies in America after the Great War” at the Society for Military History conference in Fort Worth, TX on April 29. The work is an extension of the WWI centenary activities developed on campus in 2018 (World War One and the Copper Country) and his work for the edited book, Home Front in the American Heartland: Local Experiences and Legacies of WWI (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020)