Category Archives: About the Archives

This category is used for posts that talk more about the people, services, and operation of the archives as a department.

Behind the Scenes: Windows to History

Class of 1940 Window.
Class of 1940 Window.

If you have ever visited the Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections, you might know that the staff are eager to welcome members of the campus and Copper Country community to the reading room. What you might not know, is that we’re equally excited to share information about the reading room itself and the objects that are visible to patrons every day. One of the most beloved aspects of our reading room are the three stained glass windows that adorn the south wall of the space. Each year we field a variety of questions regarding the windows, but today we’re going to reveal many of those secrets, as well as some that have recently come to light for our staff.

The first stained glass window ever installed in the archives’ reading room was the center window celebrating the class of 1940. The window was a created in tandem with the opening of an expanded facility for the University Archives in the Library in 1982, made possible through donations by the Michigan Tech Class of 1940. The window itself was designed by Walter Boylan-Pett of Mohawk. The new facility was celebrated with an open house to the public on August 6, 1982, debuting the window featuring the Michigan College of Mining and Technology school seal. Its original installation on the third floor of the library allowed for natural illumination by ambient light from the exterior of the building. Today, each window on the garden level is backlit by fluorescent lighting to give the illusion of natural lighting, which has the added benefit of making the reading room appear cheerful and sunny.

Michigan Technological University Centennial Window.
Michigan Technological University Centennial Window.

To the right of the Class of 1940 window is our stained glass window celebrating the University’s centennial. Dedicated in 1985 to celebrate the school’s 100th birthday since its founding in 1885, the window features a vibrant green, yellow, and orange pallet.

At the far left of the reading room is the “Window to the Copper Country” stained glass window. Designed by Peg McNinch by commission for the Michigan Tech Archives in the summer of 1988, the window was made “to honor the depth of local historical and natural resources materials” and has, by far, the mosting interesting story to tell of the three windows. The unveiling of the window in 1988 included a dedication by State Director of the Bureau of History, Martha M. Bigelow. The window, which stands at 6.5 x 5.5 feet, features a map of the region as its central focal point while border panels depict the local historical and natural resources for the which the window was designed.

The history of the Copper Country is indebted to the native peoples who occupied and made this area their home long before the establishment of modern mining operations. The Chippewa, Ojibway and Ottawa bands have resided in the Upper Peninsula for nearly 4,000 years, leaving a lasting legacy. The Thunderbird, which occupies a place of prominence at the top of the window is meant to represent a mythical bird believed to cause lightning and thunder while honoring the native peoples of the Upper Peninsula.

Several panels depict the natural resources of the Copper Country and incorporate local materials into the artwork. One panel on the middle-left of the window shows a waterfall representing the many natural waterfalls in the area such, as Douglass Houghton Falls, Hungarian Falls and Jacobs Falls. Local specimens of datolite are embedded into this panel. Another panel at the lower left shows the trillium and thimbleberry, well-known natural plants in the area. The thimbleberry in particular is a favorite of locals and makes excellent jam, which can be found throughout the Copper Country. A third panel on the middle-right depicts Estivant Pines, representing the last stand of virgin white pine in Michigan. Named after Edward A. J. Estivant, a pioneer who purchased the site in the 1870’s, this natural wonder is an amazing site that can be visited just south of Copper Harbor.

Window to the Copper Country.
Window to the Copper Country.

While the majority of the panels depict the aboveground history of the region, the bottom right panel containing a miner’s candle, hat and pick, is meant to commemorate the vast resources underground and the lasting legacy of the mining heritage of the Copper Country.  A quartz crystal, donated by the A.E. Seaman Mineral Museum, is inlaid on the miner’s candle, which represents the earliest form of illumination used by miners while working in the underground mines.

Prominent buildings are represented among the panels to showcase different aspects of the commercial, entertainment, and recreational history of the area. The top left panel depicts the Keweenaw Mountain Lodge. A fixture within the Copper Country, the Mountain Lodge is one of the major resorts in the area. Built in the 1930s under the Civil Works Administration, the resort is located off of U.S. 41 just outside of Copper Harbor and includes a 9-hole golf course.

Like the Keweenaw Mountain Lodge, the Copper Harbor Lighthouse has long been an important building and site in the Upper Peninsula. Built in 1866, the lighthouse marked an important port of shipping on Lake Superior since water transportation was the sole means of accessing the area and moving people, supplies, and equipment until the age of rail transportation. The top right panel depicts the Copper Harbor Lighthouse and this important era in the history of the Copper Country.

Peg McNinch working on the Window to the Copper Country, circa 1988.
Peg McNinch working on the Window to the Copper Country, circa 1988.

During our research into the Window to the Copper Country, we made a very surprising discovery that we’re excited to share with you today. On the bottom center of the window is a panel depicting the Calumet Theater. Meant to symbolize the important role the theater has played since its opening in 1900 as a place of entertainment and social gatherings into today, the panel plays a subtle, yet significant, dual role of commemoration. In December 1913, following the tragic events of the Italian Hall disaster, which left 73 people dead, including 60 children, the dead were brought to the Calumet Theater, which functioned as a temporary morgue. This relationship between the Italian Hall and the Calumet Theater is solidified in the window, which includes a slice of brick imbedded in the panel from Italian Hall. While likely known by departmental staff at the time, this interesting aspect of the window was rediscovered during our research into the windows.

We hope that you enjoyed this one of a kind behind the scenes view of the Archives’ reading room. If you would like to view the windows in person, please visit us anytime during our regular operating hours, Monday-Friday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.!



Photo of the Day – May 17, 2017

Photooftheday

 

From the Daily Mining Gazette in 1963: The Redridge Rhythm Ryders Band, carry on a tradition that was started 50 years ago. The young musicians have won considerable acclaim and recognition in the region, recently winning second place in a talent show at the Dee Stadium. Band Director William H. Brinkman plays the banjo.


Call for Volunteers, History Unfolded and Newspaper Project – Summer 2017

The Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections is currently seeking volunteers for a temporary newspaper project. The volunteer project includes participation in History Unfolded, an internationally significant research project administered by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), as well as assisting with upkeep for the Copper Country and Michigan Tech Vertical Files. The volunteer(s) selected will receive training and will gain first-hand experience in microfilm research and vertical file upkeep.

newspaper3History Unfolded, a project of the USHMM in Washington, DC, asks students, teachers, librarians, archivists and community historians throughout the United States to research what was possible for Americans to have known about the Holocaust as it was happening. Participants look in local newspapers for news and opinion pieces about 31 Holocaust-era events and submit articles they find to a national database. As of May 12, 2017, 1,561 participants from across the country have submitted over 9,900 articles from their local newspapers. However, to date only 125 of those articles come from Michigan newspapers. It is the goal of the Michigan Tech Archives volunteer project to make sure that Upper Peninsula news stories are included in the national database. In addition to microfilm research and participation in the History Unfolded project, volunteers will also be expected to assist in clipping and filing newspapers for inclusion in our local vertical file.

The following skills are required:

  • Knowledge of World War II and Holocaust history.
  • Demonstrated analytical and research skills.
  • Ability to follow instructions and work effectively in a team-based environment.
  • Ability to use basic office equipment and to learn new software.

This call is for 1-2 volunteer positions with work hours to take place Monday-Friday, between the hours of 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. An ideal volunteer would be able to commit 10-15 hours per month, although there is flexibility in setting the weekly volunteer hours.  The preferred start date is June 26, to coincide with the university’s second summer session. There will be no compensation or benefits included with this position and the successful candidate(s) will be expected to complete the appropriate volunteer forms for the university.

To learn more about us, please visit our website: http://www.mtu.edu/library/archives/.

Volunteer applications are due by June 12, 2017. Applicants should send a short letter of interest to:

Lindsay Hiltunen, University Archivist
Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections
Attn: History Unfolded Volunteer Project
Van Pelt and Opie Library
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931
copper@mtu.edu | (906) 487-2505



Immunization Week Prompts a Look Back

The last week of April was World Immunization Week. A campaign of the World Health Organization (WHO), this special event celebrates the development of vaccines to prevent diseases that once ravaged communities. The Copper Country was no exception to the scourge of sickness: measles, meningitis, diphtheria, and other illnesses made the rounds of mine towns, often with devastating effects.

Mining companies took a keen interest in the spread of these diseases and others in their surrounding communities, both for the benefit of the corporation and the good of the workforce. From nearly the beginning of Copper Country mining, company payrolls included doctors, a holdover from the Cornish roots of many early miners. As the region matured, several mines constructed hospitals and medication dispensaries to serve their employees. For a modest monthly contribution and additional fees for inpatient care, workers and their families were entitled to diagnostic services–both at home and at the hospital–and medication. Calumet & Hecla (C&H) offered perhaps the archetypal example of this service. The company opened its first hospital in 1871 and, by 1897, boasted an expanded, state-of-the-art facility with a substantial staff. Patients seeking treatment visited this impressive building on the east side of Calumet Avenue (US-41), just north of Church Street. C&H also operated a clinic in Lake Linden.

 

After 1897, those seeking treatment from C&H company physicians could visit this attractive building on today’s US-41 in Calumet. The modern facility featured cutting edge surgical and diagnostic apparatus.
After 1897, those seeking treatment from C&H company physicians could visit this attractive building on today’s US-41 in Calumet. The modern facility featured cutting edge surgical and diagnostic apparatus.

 

By the late 1890s, C&H hospital physicians also aligned themselves with the growing field of public health. At the end of each month, doctors sent the company’s superintendent reports about the highly communicable diseases–now often preventable with vaccines–that its staff had treated. These dispatches, which C&H titled “Sanitary Bulletins,” recorded the nature of each illness, the neighborhood in which it had occurred, and the address of the patient; in an endeavour that presaged today’s emphasis on data visualization, physicians then carefully plotted the cases on a map of the Calumet area, using colored circles corresponding to the illnesses observed. The month’s average temperature, mean barometric pressure, total precipitation, and prevailing wind direction also featured prominently in these bulletins, which have been preserved as part of MS-002: Calumet and Hecla Mining Companies Collection.

The sanitary bulletins are a fascinating snapshot of the state of public health in Calumet in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Through the meticulous note keeping of the mine physicians, modern researchers glimpse the illnesses that struck the community and the geography of epidemics, how sickness spread through a mine town. In March 1910, for example, a physician was called to Rockland Street in Calumet location–a settlement along the east side of today’s US-41–to tend to a feverish patient, probably a child, who was suffering from a cough, running nose, and watery eyes. An angry red rash had erupted across the patient’s skin. When the doctor came to the home, his diagnosis confirmed what family members had no doubt suspected: a case of the measles. This became the first blue dot–that month’s chosen color for measles–in a wave of illness, the tip of the iceberg.

 

“Sanitary Bulletin” prepared by Calumet & Hecla physicians in March 1910. Notice the color-coded key to the various illnesses whose occurrences doctors plotted on a map of the area.
“Sanitary Bulletin” prepared by Calumet & Hecla physicians in March 1910. Notice the color-coded key to the various illnesses whose occurrences doctors plotted on a map of the area.

 

Four days later, C&H physicians were called to tend to two cases of measles down the road in Hecla location; the following week, the neighborhood where the outbreak had begun saw another four patients with the same disease. Measles began to spread west along Pine Street, branching into the community of Blue Jacket even as it took further hold in Hecla and Calumet locations. In April, the simple outbreak of measles exploded into an epidemic. Pine Street had 18 measles patients, Rockland Street a total of 25. Adjacent Caledonia Street topped them all: 45 residents came down with measles that month. Imagine this happening in your neighborhood! The epidemic, which faded by June, sickened over 200 people. No longer able to squeeze all of the blue dots onto their sanitary bulletin, C&H doctors settled for drawing one dot per street and painstakingly penciling the total number of measles cases beside it.

 

The April 1910 edition of the bulletin showed just how busy doctors had been in attending to what they acknowledged as an epidemic of measles. Notice how the house-by-house pinpointing of cases has given way to a summary of cases by street.
The April 1910 edition of the bulletin showed just how busy doctors had been in attending to what they acknowledged as an epidemic of measles. Notice how the house-by-house pinpointing of cases has given way to a summary of cases by street.

 

Although none of the 1910 measles cases appears to have been fatal, the sanitary bulletins often tell of patients who were not so fortunate. Diphtheria, a capricious disease, sometimes dealt a glancing blow–or led to a date inked onto the chart with the word “died” beside it. Pertussis (whooping cough) lingered in homes; a painful annoyance to older children, it frequently led to deadly pneumonia in infants. Meningitis killed without prejudice, taking up to 80 percent of its victims in a matter of days.

Today, vaccines dramatically curtail the spread of these diseases, sparing countless individuals from miserable illnesses and their families from grief at the premature loss of loved ones. Poring over these fascinating artifacts unlocks a vivid story of life and death, a world before widespread vaccination. To discover more of the story, visit or contact the Michigan Tech Archives–our friendly staff are always ready to assist you.

A special thank you to our Assistant Archivist, Emily Riippa, for another well-researched and thoughtful post.



Photo of the Day – April 12, 2017

lobothecrow

Yesterday was National Pet Day, so we couldn’t resist sharing this photograph Georgeann found of Lobo the crow. From the Daily Mining Gazette article, October 20, 1958: “The crow had half the surrounding area up in the air trying to find its owner, recently, with police checking from crow owner to crow owner, Lobo eventually was returned to a Kearsarge resident.” Be sure to check out the Copper Country Historical Images site for more interesting photographs of people, pets and more!

 


Michigan Tech Archives Seeking 2017 Summer Intern

The Michigan College of Mines library reading room, 1920s or 1930s.
The Michigan College of Mines library reading room, 1920s or 1930s.

 

The Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections is currently seeking applicants for the Friends of the Michigan Tech Library Graduate Internship for summer, 2017. The archives provides a high level of service to scholars, students and a wide range of walk-in visitors and global patrons through virtual reference. Summer services are fast-paced and we see an increase in visitors, especially through our role as part of the Keweenaw Heritage Site network, a partnership with the Keweenaw National Historical Park, a member of the National Park Service. Areas of emphasis include manuscripts, maps, print and digital images which document the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan’s Western Upper Peninsula (U.P.) and university history. Partnerships with faculty and collaborative initiatives within the Van Pelt and Opie Library expose archivists to leading edge projects. Current projects include a migration to ArchivesSpace, a formalization of our outreach program through the Harwood Cohort Public Innovators workshop, and a research study and exhibit of the Copper Range Railroad.   

The intern selected will receive substantial experience in both public service and collections handling. The intern will assist in (day-to-day) public service activities, including greeting and assisting researchers, retrieving and shelving collections, and assisting university and community patrons with use of materials and equipment. The intern will also gain experience in organizing, describing and processing archival collections. This includes researching people or events covered by a collection, cleaning, arranging, boxing and creating finding aids.

Preference will be given to applicants currently enrolled in a graduate archival studies program, but consideration may be given for equivalent education and experience. The following skills are required:

  • Knowledge of contemporary archival practices, policies and procedures, including arrangement and description, and familiarity with DACS, MARC, LCSH and MPLP.
  • Demonstrated analytical and research skills.
  • Ability to work independently and exercise initiative, discretion and judgment.
  • Ability to work collegially and effectively in a team-based environment.

This is a 35 hour per week, part-time summer position to span seven weeks. The preferred start date is June 26, to coincide with the university’s second summer session. There are no benefits included with this position and the successful candidate will be expected to cover travel expenses to Houghton, Michigan. The intern will be compensated in the form of a $5,000 stipend to be paid out bi-weekly throughout the duration of employment. Offers of employment are contingent upon and not considered finalized until the required background check has been performed and the results received and assessed. Housing options in the Copper Country include independently requesting a single occupancy dorm room and included meal plan (depending on availability) or making off-campus housing arrangements. In addition to a great working environment you will enjoy exquisite scenery, moderate temperatures and outdoor activities near the shores of Lake Superior!

To learn more about us, please visit our website: http://www.mtu.edu/library/archives/

Applications are due by May 12, 2017. Direct any questions, or submit your cover letter and resume to:

Lindsay Hiltunen, University Archivist
Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections
Attn: Graduate Student Summer Intern Position
Van Pelt and Opie Library
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931
copper@mtu.edu
(906) 487-2505

Michigan Technological University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution/Equal Opportunity Employer, which includes providing equal opportunity for protected veterans and individuals with disabilities.