Author: Kim Geiger

Brad King: Space, Satellites and Students

Pictured: the Auris signal trace, soon to be explained by Dr. Lyon (Brad) King on Husky Bites.

Lyon (Brad) King shares his knowledge on Husky Bites, a free, interactive webinar this Monday, May 18 at 6 pm. Learn something new in just 20 minutes, with time after for Q&A! Get the full scoop and register at mtu.edu/huskybites.

Oculus deployed! In June 2019 Michigan Tech alumnus and Air Force Research Laboratory Space Systems Engineer Jesse Olson, left, celebrates with Aerospace Enterprise advisor Brad King. King’s son Jack was also on hand for the momentous occasion of the launch.

Turning dreams into reality is a powerful motivator for Lyon (Brad) King. He’s the Richard and Elizabeth Henes Professor of Space Systems in the Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, and leader of Michigan Tech Aerospace—a collection of research, development, and educational labs dedicated to advancing spacecraft technology.

King specializes in spacecraft propulsion — and the launching of student careers. He mentors a large team of graduate students in his research lab, the Ion Space Propulsion Lab, where teams develop next-generation plasma thrusters for spacecraft. Off campus, at the MTEC SmartZone, King is cofounder and CEO of the fast-growing company, Orbion Space Technology.

As the founder and faculty advisor of Michigan Tech’s Aerospace Enterprise, King empowers undergraduate students to design, build, and fly spacecraft, too. One of the team’s student-built satellites (Oculus) is now in orbit; their second small satellite (Stratus) is due to launch in March 2021, and a third (Auris) now in process.

“The desire to explore space is what drives me. Very early in my studies I realized that the biggest impediment to space exploration is propulsion. Space is just so big it’s hard to get anywhere. So I dedicated my professional life to developing new space propulsion technologies.”

Professor Lyon (Brad) King, Michigan Tech

King has served as the Enterprise advisor ever since a couple of students came to him with the idea to form a team nearly two decades ago. “My current role now is more that of an outside evaluator,” he says. “The team has taken on a life of its own.”

Like all Enterprise teams at Michigan Tech, Aerospace Enterprise is open to students in any major. “It’s important for students to learn how to work in an interdisciplinary group,” says King. “In the workplace, they will never be on a team where every member has the same expertise. To design, build, manage and operate a satellite requires mechanical, electrical, computer science, physics, materials, everything — it really crosses a lot of boundaries and prepares them for a career.”

Adds King: “Michigan Tech has a history and reputation for hands-on projects, particularly its Enterprise Program. Our students don’t just write papers and computer programs. They know how to turn wrenches and build things. That’s been deeply ingrained in the University culture for years.” 

Last, but not least: “Aerospace Enterprise has a leadership and management hierarchy that is self-sustaining,” says King. “Current leaders are constantly working to mentor their successors so we have continuity from year-to-year.” 

“Dr. King provides excellent mentoring and high-level direction, but does not give students all the answers. It’s up to the students to figure it out. We work in small teams, which forces us to take on more responsibility. We’re thrown off the deep end. It’s hard, but worth it.”

Sam Baxendale, spoken as a former student. He’s now an engineer at Orbion Space Technologies
The Aerospace Enterprise team at Michigan Tech enjoys some well-deserved downtime at McLain State Park on Lake Superior.

The New Space Era

Commercialization is driving aerospace expansion in Michigan and across the nation. “We were ahead of it,” says King. “We certainly were feeding it and played a part in causing it. MTU’s products — which are our graduates — are out there, making this happen.” Aerospace Enterprise alumni are engineers, managers, technology officers and research scientists in a diverse array of aerospace-related industries and institutions, from the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force and NASA to SpaceX, both startups and major manufacturers. King himself has hired several of his former students at Orbion Space Technology.

“The desire to explore space is what drives me,” says Lyon (Brad) King, Henes Professor of Space Systems at Michigan Technological University

Q: When did you first get into engineering? What sparked your interest?

A: I have always been interested in building things — long before I knew that was called “engineering.” I don’t recall when I became fascinated with space but it was at a very early age. I have embarrassing photos of me dressed as an astronaut for halloween and I may still even have an adult-sized astronaut costume somewhere in my closet — not saying. The desire to explore space is what drives me. Very early in my studies I realized that the biggest impediment to space exploration is propulsion. Space is just so big it’s hard to get anywhere. So I dedicated my professional life to developing new space propulsion technologies. There is other life in our solar system. That is a declarative statement. It’s time that we find it. The moons of Jupiter and Saturn hold great promise and I’m determined to see proof in my lifetime.

Q: Can you tell us more about your growing up? Any hobbies?

A: I was born and raised just north of Houghton (yes, there actually is some habitable environment north of Houghton). I received my BS, MS, and PhD from the University of Michigan. I spent time traveling around the country working at NASA in Houston, NIST in Boulder, and realized that all of my personal hobbies and proclivities were centered around the geography and climate of northern Michigan. I returned in 2000 and began my career as a professor at MTU. I enjoy fishing, boating, hockey, and spent more than 15 years running my dogsled team all over the Keweenaw Peninsula.


Michigan Tech’s Three Student-Built Satellites

OCULUS-ASR, a microsatellite now in orbit, provides new info to the Air Force. “It is the first satellite mission dedicated to helping telescope observatories understand what they are imaging using a cooperative target. “It’s a very capable little vehicle. There’s a lot packed into it.”

Aerospace Enterprise rendering of Stratus, a miniaturized satellite developed by the team. It will be launched from the International Space Station in March 2021.

Not hard to see how CubeSats get their name. Stratus is a 3U spacecraft, which means it’s composed of three units. This photo was taken in fall 2019.

STRATUS, a miniaturized satellite, will image atmospheric clouds to reconcile climate models. It’s funded by NASA’s Undergraduate Student Instrument Program and the CubeSat Launch Initiative. STRATUS will be carried to the International Space Station inside the SpaceX Dragon cargo capsule by a Falcon 9 rocket. The Dragon will dock to the ISS where STRATUS will be unloaded by the crew. STRATUS will then be placed in the Kibo Module’s airlock, where the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System robotic arm will move the satellite into the correct position and deploy it into space. All this on March 21. Stay tuned!

Aerospace Enterprise rendering of its newest microsatellite, Auris, now in the works.

AURIS, a microsatellite, is designed to monitor and attribute telecommunications signals in a congested space environment. Funding comes from the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL)’s University Nanosatellite Program.

Huskies in Space

Michigan Tech’s Aerospace Enterprise team designed their own logo.

Learn more about the team and its missions on Instagram and Facebook.

Find out how to join.

Read more about Aerospace Enterprise in Michigan Tech News:

And Then There Were Two: MTU’s Next Student Satellite Set to Launch in 2021

Enterprise at MTU Launches Spacecraft—and Careers

Countdown. Ignition. Liftoff. Huskies in Space!

Mission(s) AccomplishedMichigan Tech’s Pipeline to Space

Winning Satellite to be Launched into Orbit


John Gierke: How the Rocks Connect Us

Pictured: Hungarian Falls in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Credit: Jessica Rich, a Michigan Tech graduate and member of the MTU Geology Club

John Gierke shares his knowledge on Husky Bites, a free, interactive webinar this Monday, May 11 at 6 pm. Learn something new in just 20 minutes, with time after for Q&A! Get the full scoop and register at mtu.edu/huskybites.

John Gierke stands with water behind him, on the shore of Portage Canal.
Water was John Gierke’s first love growing up. Now he is Professor and Chair of the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences at Michigan Tech, specializing in hydrogeology. Here he stands at the shore of Portage Canal, on campus.

A self-professed “Yooper graduate of the school of hard rocks,” John Gierke chairs the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences (GMES) at Michigan Technological University. He’s also an alumnus, earning a BS and MS in Civil Engineering, and a PhD in Environmental Engineering, all at Michigan Tech.

Q: How do the rocks connect us?

A: The geology of the Keweenaw and Western Upper Peninsula is quite unique and different than the Eastern Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula. The geology of the Keweenaw is more exposed and accessible. The experience of spending time in the Copper Country is enhanced if you understand more about the forces of nature that formed this beautiful place. While geologists are knowledgeable in identifying rocks, their truest natures are also wrapped in a yearning to be outdoors, exceptional observation skills, and insatiable curiosity to understand Earth processes. The processes that led to the geological formations that lie beneath us–and shaped our landscapes–are what dictated many of the natural resources that are found where each of us live.

Q: When did you first get into engineering? What sparked your interest?

A: I began studying engineering at Lake Superior State College (then, now University) in the fall of 1980, in my hometown of Sault Ste. Marie. In those days their engineering program was called: General Engineering Transfer, which was structured well to transfer from the old “Soo Tech” to “Houghton Tech,” terms that some old timers still used back then, nostalgically. I transferred to Michigan Tech for the fall of 1982 to study civil engineering with an emphasis in environmental engineering, which was aligned with my love of water (having grown up on the St. Mary’s River).

Despite my love of lakes, streams, and rivers, my technical interests evolved into an understanding of how groundwater moves in geological formations. I used my environmental engineering background to develop treatment systems to clean up polluted soils and aquifers. That became my area of research for the graduate degrees that followed, and the basis for my faculty position and career at Michigan Tech, in the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences (those sciences are Geology and Geophysics). My area of specialty now is Hydrogeology.

Q: Can you tell us more about your growing up? Any hobbies?

A: Growing up I fished weekly, sometimes daily, on the St. Mary’s River throughout the year. Sault Ste. Marie is bordered by the St. Mary’s River on the north and east. In the spring-summer-fall, I fished from shore or a canoe or small boat. In the winter, I speared fish from a shack just a few minutes from my home or traveled to fish through the ice in some of the bays. I was a fervent bird hunter (grouse and woodcock) in the lowlands of the EUP, waterfowl in the abundant wetlands, and bear and deer (unsuccessfully until later in life). I now live on a blueberry farm that is open to the public in August for U-Pick. I used my technical expertise to design, install, and operate a drip irrigation system that draws water from the underlying Jacobsville Sandstone aquifer.

Want to know more about Husky Bites? Read about it here.


Husky Bites: Join Us for Supper This Summer (Mondays at 6)!

A real Husky Dog sitting at a table covered with a white tablecloth, with a plate and bowl full of dog biscuits in front of it The dog is wearing a red and black checked flannel shirt, and wearing black horn-rimmed glasses

Craving some brain food? Join Dean Janet Callahan and a special guest each Monday at 6 p.m. EST for a new, 20-minute interactive Zoom webinar from the College of Engineering at Michigan Technological University, followed by Q&A. Grab some supper, or just flop down on your couch. This family friendly event is BYOC (Bring Your Own Curiosity). All are welcome. Get the full scoop and register⁠—it’s free⁠—at mtu.edu/huskybites.

The special guests: A dozen engineering faculty have each volunteered to present a mini lecture for Husky Bites. They’ll weave in a bit of their own personal journey to engineering, too.

“We created Husky Bites for anyone who likes to learn, across the universe,” says Callahan. “We’re aiming to make it very interactive, with a “quiz” (in Zoom that’s a multiple choice poll), about every five minutes. “Everyone is welcome, and bound to learn something new. We are hoping entire families will enjoy it,” she adds. “We have prizes, too, for near perfect attendance!”

Topics include: Space, Satellites, and Students; Shipwrecks and Underwater Robots; A Quieter Future (Acoustics); Geospatial Wizardry; Color-Changing Potions and Magical Microbes; Scrubbing Water, There’s Materials Science and Engineering, in my Golf Bag, Biomedical Engineering the Future, How Do Machines Learn, Robotics, Math in Motion, and more. Get the full scoop and register (it’s free) at mtu.edu/huskybites

The series kicks off on Monday, May 11 with a session from GMES professor and chair John Gierke, a self-professed “Yooper graduate of the school of hard rocks.”

In his Husky Bites session, “How the Rocks Connect Us,” Gierke will talk about how the geology of the Keweenaw is more exposed and accessible. “The experience of spending time in the Copper Country is enhanced if you understand more about the forces of nature that formed this beautiful place,” he says. “The processes that led to the geological formations that lie beneath us and shaped our landscapes are what dictated many of the natural resources that are found where each of us live.” Gierke was born in the EUP (the Soo, aka Sault Sainte Marie) and graduated from Michigan Tech. He will provide practical explanations for why the mines are oriented as they are, where water is more prevalent—and the geological features that lead to waterfalls. You can read all about it here.

Other guests on Husky Bites include engineering faculty L. Brad King, Gordon Parker, Rebecca Ong, Guy Meadows, Andrew Barnard, Tony Pinar, Daisuke Minakata, Jeremy Bos, Joe Foster, Smitha Rao, and Steve Kampe.

Want to see the full schedule? Just go to mtu.edu/huskybites. You can register from there, too.


Everything has to be made out of something. The question is out of what—and how do we make it?

Ferrosilicon inoculant is added to a stream of liquid iron. Sparks fly as the inoculant reacts with the liquid iron.

These are the questions engineers at Michigan Tech have been asking since the university’s founding in 1885. It’s the task that graduates from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) have excelled at since its inception as one of the two founding departments at the Michigan School of Mines in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula in 1885. Back then, the department was known as Metallurgy, and its focus was on ways to extract valuable metals, such as copper or iron, from their naturally occurring states within minerals and underground deposits.  

Today the discipline of Materials Science and Engineering finds ways to use the fundamental physical origins of material behavior—the science of materials—to optimize properties through structure modification and processing, to design and invent new and better materials, and to understand why some materials unexpectedly fail. In other words, the engineering of materials.  

The Michigan Tech campus is located on the Portage Canal near Lake Superior.

Contemporary materials engineers (aka MSEs) work with metals and alloys, ceramics and glasses, polymers and elastomers; electronic, magnetic, and optical materials; composites, and many other emerging materials. That includes materials such as 2-D graphene, nanomaterials and biomaterials, materials that have been 3D printed or additively manufactured, smart materials, and specialized sensors.

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) connects and collaborates with many other disciplines. The products and processes developed by MSEs are used by others to make new or improved products.

Materials Science and Engineering is inherently interdisciplinary—students interact and collaborate with students and scientists in other engineering disciplines, and also science disciplines, including chemistry and physics. 

Despite its legacy and historical central importance to all engineering endeavors, the materials discipline is relatively small compared to other engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, civil, and chemical engineering. In fact, many universities do not have stand-alone materials departments.

“But this is one of the best aspects of being an MSE,” says Michigan Tech MSE Department Chair Steve Kampe, “Class sizes are small, and students build strong networks with classmates, the faculty and staff, and with likeminded colleagues from other universities from around the world,” he says. “It enables strong learning and collaborative environments with lots of personalized interaction and one-on-one mentoring.”

Not only is Kampe a member of the Michigan Tech faculty, he is also an alumnus, earning a Bachelor’s, Master’s, and PhD in Metallurgical Engineering, all from Michigan Tech. He joined academia after working in the corporate research laboratory for a major aerospace company, where scientists and engineers developed new products and technologies for the company’s future.

Examining material structure using the scanning electron microscope.

At Michigan Tech, the MSE department manages the university’s suite of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes, including a unique, high resolution scanning transmission FEI Titan Themis. The facility also maintains excellent X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy capabilities. In the university’s Institute of Material Processing (IMP), also led by MSE faculty, processing capabilities include melt processing, deformation processing, microelectronic fabrication, and particulate (powder)-based processing capabilities. All students use these world-class facilities—even as undergraduates.

Students at Michigan Tech can join one of 24 Enterprise teams on campus to work on real projects, for real clients. Students invent products, provide services, and pioneer solutions. Advanced Metalworks Enterprise (AME) is a popular enterprise among MSE students. Small groups within the AME team take ownership of metallurgical manufacturing projects, working closely with industry sponsors.

The Advanced MetalWorks Enterprise team, AME, at Michigan Technological University

“Being on an Enterprise team helps students build a résumé, develop teamwork skills, form professional relationships, and learn what to expect in the workforce,” says Kampe. “We’re grateful for our corporate sponsors’ help in offering students an opportunity to take textbook skills from the classroom and apply them in practical ways, to experiment, and get results.”

MSE students also get involved in Materials United (MU), a student professional organization that exposes them to all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering—learning about industry, sharing research, developing personal skills, participating in professional societies, and traveling to international conferences. 

As one example of student success, MSE students from Michigan Tech won first place in ASM International’s Undergraduate Design Competition the last two years in a row, based on entries from their capstone senior design projects. Last year, the winning entry was based on a project entitled “Cobalt reduction in Tribaloy T-400” sponsored by Winsert, Inc. of Marinette, Wisconsin.

Microstructure of Tribaloy T-400 containing a Co solid solution, a C14 Laves phase, and a Co solid solution-C14 Laves eutectic phase.

“Winsert currently uses an alloy similar to Tribaloy T-400, a cobalt-based alloy, in the production of internal combustion engine valve seats,” Kampe explains. “Cobalt is an expensive element with a rapidly fluctuating price, due to political instability in the supplier countries. The alloy contains approximately 60 wt. percent cobalt, contributing significantly to its price. There are also serious sustainability and environmental implications associated with the use of cobalt—both positive and negative,” he says. “Cobalt is one of the elements used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries that are now under heavy development for electric vehicles.” 

The student team investigated the replacement of cobalt with other transition elements such as iron, nickel, and aluminum using thermodynamic modeling. “All MSE senior design projects at Michigan Tech use advanced simulation and modeling tools, experimental calibration, and statistical-based analyses of the results,” notes Kampe. “The Winsert project utilized software called CALPHAD (Pandat) with a form of machine learning —Bayesian Optimization—to identify new and promising alloy substitutions. Such advanced techniques are rarely introduced at the undergraduate level in most other MSE programs.”

“Our department’s small size allows meaningful student involvement in hands-on laboratory activities, personal access to facilities, real participation in leading-edge projects, and close networking with peers, faculty and staff, alumni, and prospective employers,” adds Kampe. “The benefits of being a part of a strong professional network continues after graduation. Our strong learning community becomes our students’ first professional network after they graduate. It gives them a strong early foundation for a great career.”

A metal matrix composite created by infiltrating magnesium into a carbonized wood lattice. In this senior design project, the MSE team collaborated with Michigan Tech’s College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science.

Due to the importance of materials to the success of nearly all engineered products, MSEs enjoy employment opportunities in a wide range of industries and in a variety of functions. For example, MSEs are prominent within the automotive, aerospace, electronics, consumer products, and defense industries, performing duties such as new material design, material substitution and optimization, manufacturing science, and material forensics, such as material identification and failure analyses. 

MSE undergraduate students Kiaya Caspers, Jared Harper, Jonah Jarczewski, and Pierce Mayville.

“There are also rich opportunities in corporate and government research and development, since new products and functionalities often start with advancements in our understanding of materials, or in our ability to process them,” says Kampe. “MSE graduates from Michigan Tech enjoy nearly 100 percent placement at graduation due not only to the reputation of the department, but also due to the fact that just about all engineering-oriented companies rely on materials for their products.”


Earth Day Continues! All are Welcome at these Copper Country (social-distance friendly) Special Events

Historical sign once hung on posts at the entrance to the city of Houghton, Michigan that says, Welcoome to the Copper country. You are now breathing the purest most vitalizing air on earth!
Courtesy of Michigan Tech Archives

There are still many Earth Day events coming up in Copper Country, and no matter where you live on this Earth, you’re invited. All are welcome.

  • Get Some Fresh Air: Nature is Open for Business
    Now through May 10 — Self-guided walk featuring Earth Day artwork from Houghton Elementary 4th grade students at Keweenaw Land Trust Paavola Wetlands. Can’t get there in person? Here’s the video tour.
  • Planet of the Humans
    April 21 and beyond: View “Planet of the Humans” (90 min.)  The film takes a harsh look at how the environmental movement has lost the battle through well-meaning but disastrous choices, including the belief that solar panels and windmills would save us, and giving in to corporate interests of Wall Street.
  • Invasive Plant Removal Challenge
    Now through June 20 — Stewardship Network Spring Invasive Plant Removal Challenge. Pull invasive species from your yard, natural area, anywhere. Submit location, number of people, and weight of invasive plants removed.
  • Great Lakes Bioblitz!
    Now through – May 20 — Great Lakes Bioblitz in your Backyard. Community members, families, and students across the Great Lakes states and Ontario are invited to participate in finding and identifying as many wild, living things as possible in a specific area (backyards and other outdoor spaces) during the next month
  • How Some are Turning the Stay at Home Order into a Positive Experience
    Saturday (April 25) from 6-8 p.m. — UPEC 2020 Celebrate the U.P. Presentations will be available later on YouTube. Speakers include Monica Lewis-Patrick, We The People of Detroit; Sarah Green, International Climate Action; Angie Carter, Western UP Food Systems Council, and several more. The event will wrap up with short videos on how some have turned the Stay at Home order into a positive experience.
  • What Happens to Houghton County Recyclables
    April 28, 7-8 p.m. — “What Happens to Houghton County Recyclables?” with Eagle Waste & Recycling owner, Alan Alba, and sponsored by Copper Country Recycling Initiative.
  • Native Plant Symposium: Monarch Butterflies
    April 30, 7 p.m. Native Plant Symposium Part 2, Sue Trull, botanist for the Ottawa Nat. Forest, will present “Monarchs & Milkweeds—All Hands-on Deck,” and “Using Native Plants to Support Pollinators” by Jackie Manchester-Kempke, of Houghton, an extension master gardener. Register here.
  • Book Club: Nature’s Best Hope
    May 7, 7 p.m.— Keweenaw Land Trust’s Natural History. Book Club discussion of Doug Tallamy’s “Nature’s Best Hope” via Zoom. (Password: 703851)
  • Five things you can keep out of the landfill:
    June 27  — (Stay tuned) The previously scheduled Waste Reduction Drive for Earth Day, sponsored by Michigan Tech’s student-run Sustainability House, will be rescheduled. In the meantime, keep collecting Styrofoam containers, plastic bottle caps, batteries and foil lined granola and energy bar wrappers. Read how they can be recycled here.

Design Expo 2020 Award Winners

A view of campus from across the Portage Canal, with light snow, and open water.

More than 1,000 students in Enterprise and Senior Design showcased their hard work last Thursday, April 16 at Michigan Tech’s first-ever virtual Design Expo. Teams competed for cash awards totaling nearly $4,000. Judges included corporate representatives, community members and Michigan Tech staff and faculty.

The College of Engineering and the Pavlis Honors College are pleased to announce award winners, below. Congratulations and thanks to ALL teams for a very successful Design Expo 2020. But first, a few important items:

Design Expo Video Gallery

Be sure to check out the virtual gallery, which remains on display at mtu.edu/expo.

20th Anniversary of Design Expo
This year marked the 20th anniversary of Design Expo. Read the Michigan Tech news story here.

SOAR’s SSROV Royale deployed in summers on Isle Royale National Park as part of the Enterprise partnership.
SOAR’s SSROV Royale deployed in summers on Isle Royale National Park as part of the Enterprise partnership

Special Note:
In addition to all the Michigan Tech teams, SOAR, a high school Enterprise from Dollar Bay High School in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, also took part in this year’s virtual Design Expo. Advised by teacher Matt Zimmer, the team designs, builds, and deploys underwater remote operated vehicles (ROVs). SOAR partners with local community organizations to monitor, research, and improve the local watershed. Their clients include Isle Royale National Park, Delaware Mine, OcuGlass, and Michigan Tech’s Great Lakes Research Center. Check out the SOAR video here (SOAR is team 124).


Now, without further ado, here are the Design Expo award results!


ENTERPRISE AWARDS
Based on video submissions

Team photo with Baja vehicle outside on campus at Michigan Tech with Portage Canal in the background.

First Place – $500
Blizzard Baja Enterprise
Team Leaders: Olivia Vargo, Mechanical Engineering, and Kurt Booms, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Advisor: Kevin Johnson, Mechanical Engineering Technology
Sponsors: General Motors, Aramco Americas, DENSO, SAE International, Magna, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Halla Mechatronics, Meritor, Oshkosh Corporation, Ford Motor Company, John Deere, Nexteer, IPETRONIK, FEV, Milwaukee Tool, Altair, Henkel, ArcelorMittal, TeamTECH, and Keysight Technologies
Overview: Building and innovating a single-seat, off-road vehicle for the SAE Collegiate Design Series-Baja events is the team’s focus. After passing a rigorous safety and technical inspection, they compete on acceleration, hill climb, maneuverability, suspension and endurance. The team also organizes and hosts the Winter Baja Invitational event, a long-standing university tradition dating back to 1981.


Team photo

Second Place – $300
Mining INnovation Enterprise (MINE)

Team Leaders: George Johnson, Mechanical Engineering; and Breeanne Heusdens, Geological Engineering
Advisor: Paulus Van Susante, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Sponsors: Cignys, Cummins, General Motors, MEEM Advisory Board, Michigan Scientific Corporation, Michigan Space Grant Consortium, Milwaukee Tool, MISUMI, NASA, Raytheon, Wayland Wildcats
Overview: MINE designs, tests, and implements mining innovation technologies—in some hard-to-reach places—for industry partners. The team is developing a gypsum process to mine water on Mars funded by a grant from NASA. Gypsum is 20 percent water by weight and is found abundantly on the surface of Mars. A geological sub-team is developing methodology for deep sea mining research. Last but not least, MINE is creating a robot for the NASA Lunabotics competition, held every year at the Kennedy Space Center with 50 university teams in attendance.


Team photo near the Husky statue at Michigan Tech, in the snow.

Third Place – $200 (tie)
Innovative Global Solutions
(IGS)
Team Leaders: Nathan Tetzlaff, Mechanical Engineering; Marie Marche, Biomedical Engineering
Advisors: Radheshyam Tewari, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics; and Nathan Manser, Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences
Sponsors: Cummins, Milwaukee Tool, and Enterprise Manufacturing Initiative funded by General Motors
Overview: IGS pursues solutions for the needs of developing countries, making contributions toward solving the Grand Challenges, an initiative set forth by the National Academy of Engineering. The team has designed, built and tested an innovative vaccine container to improve the transport of viable vaccines and increase accessibility. They have developed a low-cost, multifunctional infant incubator to help decrease infant mortality rates. They are also working on an open-source-based 3D printer that can recycle plastic to meet basic community needs.


Stratus: Detailed render of the Stratus spacecraft deployed on-orbit.

Third Place – $200 (tie)
Aerospace Enterprise

Team Leaders: Troy Maust, Computer Engineering; and Matthew Sietsema, Electrical Engineering
Advisor: L. Brad King, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Sponsors: Air Force Research Laboratory, NASA
Overview: Space mission design and analysis, vehicle integration, systems engineering, and comprehensive ground-testing and qualification are all going on within the Aerospace Enterprise at any given time. All members contribute toward achieving specific project goals. The Auris mission demonstrates the technical feasibility of a CubeSat to provide situational data, in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The Stratus mission involves collecting atmospheric and weather data from a CubeSat in collaboration with NASA—a pathfinder toward developing new, complex space systems leveraging the low-cost and small size of CubeSats to achieve the performance of traditional, monolithic systems.


Lost in Mazie Mansion, a game created by HGD shows an illustration of Mazie (small figure with golden hair, standing in what looks like a library, with 3 sets of bookcases behind her.

Honorable Mention – $100
Husky Game Development (HGD)

Team Leaders: Colin Arkens and Xixi Tian, Computer Science
Advisor: Scott Kuhl, Computer Science
Sponsor: Pavlis Honors College
Overview: Developing video games is the name of the game for HGD. Each year, the Enterprise breaks up into subteams of around six students who experience a full game development cycle, including ideation, design, and end product. HGD explores a wide variety of video game engines and platforms, including Windows, Android, Xbox, and an experimental Display Wall.


SENIOR DESIGN AWARDS
Based on video submissions

Blueprint-style drawing of the team's eddy current inspection in-line integration tester.

First Place – $400
Eddy Current Inspection In-line Integration

Team Members: Brett Hulbert, Austin Ballou, Britten Lewis, Nathan Beining, Philip Spillman and Sophie Pawloski, Mechanical Engineering
Advisor: Wayne Weaver, Mechanical Engineering- Engineering Mechanics
Sponsor: MacLean-Fogg Component Solutions-Metform
Overview: Eddy current testing (ECT) is a non-destructive method for testing metal surfaces for defects using electromagnetic induction to detect surface flaws in conductive materials. The team was tasked with developing an eddy current tester that would non-destructively test a washer for surface cracks and flaws before it is assembled with a nut. They created a testing operation that spins, tests, and ejects washers based on whether they pass or fail, all within the existing assembly cell.


CAD drawing of the team's
hospital washer with data optimization sensors.

Second Place – $250
Hospital Washer Auto Sampler Usage & Data Optimization
Team Members: Nick Golden and Jeremy Weaver, Biomedical Engineering; Jack Ivers, Mechanical Engineering
Advisors: Bruce Lee and Sangyoon Han, Biomedical Engineering
Sponsor: Stryker
Overview: Hospitals use wash systems to clean and sterilize instruments after use. Factors of the wash environment can harm surgical instruments. To solve this problem, the team designed a device that actively senses conditions inside a hospital washer to provide information on the effects of the wash environment, allowing for wash cycle optimization.


A 3D-printed pattern cast in aluminum by sponsor Mercury Marine

Third Place – $150
Direct Casting with Additive Manufactured Patterns
Team Members: James Driesenga, Riley Simpson, Camden Miner, Zach Schwab, TC Swittel, and Sean Frank, Mechanical Engineering
Advisor: Bob Page, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Sponsor: Mercury Marine
Overview: The team developed a lost-foam style casting process that uses a 3D printed pattern instead of expanded polystyrene in metal casting. The use of expanded polystyrene allows for complete part filling, but cost and time required to create a new pattern are high. The 3D printing of patterns eradicates the need for pattern tooling and significantly reduces the time required to produce a pattern.


Medtronic’s radiofrequency ablation platform: Accurian System

Honorable Mention (1) – $100
Radiofrequency Ablation Modeling and Validation of Cannula Design
s
Team Members: Clare Biolchini, Matthew Colaianne, and Ellen Lindquist, Biomedical Engineering; Samuel Miller, Electrical Engineering
Advisor: Jeremy Goldman, Biomedical Engineering
Sponsor: Medtronic
Overview: Predictable lesion formation during radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pain control is a function of many factors and the subject of decades of research. Of specific interest to Medtronic is lesion formation in non-homogeneous tissues and structures. The team developed mathematical models and physical model validation for treatment scenarios, including knees and shoulders. Photo courtesy of Medtronic.


Solidworks model of deicing fluid collection cart

Honorable Mention (2) – $100
Airport Needs Design Challenge
Team Members: Derek Cingel, Jared Langdon, Bryce Leaf, Ruth Maki, and Douglas Pedersen, Mechanical Engineering
Advisor: Paul van Susante, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Sponsor: Airport Cooperative Research Program
Overview: To help reduce the contamination of deicing fluid in small airports, the team developed a cart specially designed to collect a significant amount of the fluid that comes from the wings. Saving and reusing deicing fluid will save money, and reduce the runoff into streams and waterways.


A prototype of the testing system, shown on a workbench

Honorable Mention (3) – $100
Validation Test System for Boston Scientific IPP
Team Members: McKenzie Hill, Ahmed Al Dulaim, Nathan Halanski, and Katherine Wang, Biomedical Engineering
Advisors: Orhan Soykan and Sangyoon Han, Biomedical Engineering
Sponsor: Boston Scientific
Overview: Performing analyses, simulations, and engineering calculations, the team was able to estimate and predict the movement of IPP cylinders and resulting stress/strain. They designed new test procedures to perform physical testing and fabricated a physical test system.


Team members from left: Brian Parvin, Paul Allen, David Brushaber, Alex Kirchner, Kurtis Alessi

Honorable Mention (4) – $100
Road Marking Reflectivity Evaluator
Team Members: Brian Parvin, Mechanical Engineering; Paul Allen, Electrical Engineering; and David Brushaber, Kurtis Alessi and Alex Kirchner, Computer Engineering
Advisor: Tony Pinar, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Sponsor: SICK, Inc.
Overview: When road stripes wear off, auto accidents increase. To solve this problem, the team developed software that uses reflectivity values obtained using a SICK lidar unit. Their new software identifies deterioration of road stripes and recommends timely repainting, which will also aid in the safety and reliability of self-driving vehicles on roadways. The team constructed a prototype to demonstrate functionality–a pushable cart that evaluates road markings. An intuitive user interface displays the markings being evaluated, and indicates if they meet necessary levels of reflectivity. With their project, the team is taking part in the TiM$10K Challenge, a national innovation and design competition.


20th Anniversary “People’s Choice” Award – $100
Based on receiving the most text-in votes during Design Expo

A CAD drawing of the actuator showing two UGVs connected by the coupling and actuating system

Connector and Coupling Actuator for Mobile Electrical Microgrids
Team Members: Trevor Barrett, Nathan Bondi, and Sam Krusinski, Mechanical Engineering; Travis Moon, Electrical Engineering
Advisor: Cameron Hadden, Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Sponsor: Center for Agile and Interconnected Microgrids
Overview: Imagine how someone living through a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina or Hurricane Dorian must have felt—scared and helpless, with no way to call for assistance or let loved ones know they were okay. It could be days or weeks before first responders are able to restore power to the area. That is where our project comes in. Our team was tasked to design, prototype, and test a connector and coupling actuator that can establish an electrical connection between two unmanned ground vehicles that will be used to build temporary microgrids in areas that desperately need it.


DESIGN EXPO IMAGE CONTEST
Based on team photos submitted during Design Expo registration

First Place – $200
Formula SAE Enterprise

F-276 Racecar racing by on a speedway with the driver shown in his black helmet.
F-276 Racecar. Photo Credit: Brendan Treanore, 4th year, MSE

Second Place – $100
Flammability Reduction in Magnesium Alloys for Additive Manufacturing

Two orange-yellow flames jet up from a pike of ashes.
Flammability test of a magnesium AZ61 alloy. Photo Credit: Max Urquhart, 3rd year, ECE

Third Place – $50
Velovations Enterprise

Three fat tired bikes are parked in the snow along the Michigan Tech "Tech Trails" groomed trail system, covered in snow, with sunshine and trees in the background.
Velovations Enterprise: Testing dropper posts in the snow Photo Credit: Somer Schrock, 3rd year, ME

DESIGN EXPO INNOVATION AWARDS
Based on application
. Learn more here.

The Husky Innovate logo shows a lightbulb with blue, green and teal dots flowing out in the rough profile of a Husky dog.
Microphoto of master alloy nanoindentation array of Al25Mn, courtesy of MSE 4th year student Ryan Lester
Microphoto of master alloy nanoindentation array of Al25Mn. Credit: Ryan Lester

First Place – $250
Increasing the Young’s Modulus of Cast Aluminum for Stiffness-Limited Applications

Team Members: Joel Komurka, Ryan Lester, Zeke Marchel, and
Wyatt Gratz, Material Science and Engineering
Advisor: Paul Sanders, Materials Science and Engineering
Sponsor: Eck Industries


Benchtop design which simulates physiological conditions in HLHS patients for testing of our stent prototype. (photo taken by Kelsey LeMay)
The team’s benchtop design, which simulates the physiological conditions in HLHS patients used to test infant heart stent prototype.

Second Place – $150
Transcatheter Sign Ventricle Device (BME)

Team Members: David Atkin, Kelsey LeMay, and Gabrielle Lohrenz, Biomedical Engineering
Advisors: Smitha Rao and Jeremy Goldman, Biomedical Engineering
Sponsor: Spectrum Health—Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital


a prototype of the vaccine transporter, which is about the size of a large breadbox, and fits inside a duffel bag.
Second iteration of the IGS team’s vaccine cold transport container for developing countries, which fits neatly inside a duffel bag.

Third Place – $100
Innovative Global Solutions (IGS)

Team Leaders: Nathan Tetzlaff, Mechanical Engineering; Marie Marche, Biomedical Engineering
Advisors: Radheshyam Tewari, ME-EM and Nathan Manser, Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences
Sponsor: Enterprise Manufacturing Initiative funded by General Motors, Cummins, Milwaukee Tool

2020 ENTERPRISE AWARDS
Based on student, advisor, faculty and staff nominations.

The Michigan Tech Enterprise Program logo, created over a decade ago by a Michigan Tech student, features a yellow lower case "e" in the shape of a swoosh


Student Awards
Outstanding Leadership: Allysa Meinburg, Consumer Product Manufacturing

Rookie Award: Bryce Traver, Alternative Energy Enterprise

Innovative Solutions: Travis Wavrunek, Alternative Energy Enterprise

Industry/Sponsor Relations: Jordan Woldt, Blue Marble Security/Oshkosh Baja Suspension Team

Faculty/Staff/Sponsor Awards
Outstanding Enterprise Advisor: Dr. Tony Rogers, Consumer Product Manufacturing

Outstanding Enterprise Sponsor: Michael Bunge, Libbey Inc.

Behind the Scenes: Steven Lehmann, Biomedical Engineering


THANKS TO ALL!

Now, be sure to check out all the awesome Enterprise and Senior Design team projects at mtu.edu/expo.


Design Expo is Today!

Join today us online at mtu.edu/expo. All are welcome!

The 20th Design Expo starts today (April 16). Watch the Kick-off event live via Zoom and Facebook Live starting at 10 a.m. Register to virtually attend this event before 10 a.m. via Zoom, or tune into the Pavlis Honors College Facebook Page. No registration required to watch via Facebook Live.

Starting at 4 p.m. we will live stream the Awards Presentation via Zoom and Facebook Live.

Register to virtually attend this event before 4 p.m. via Zoom or tune into the Michigan Tech Facebook Page. No registration required to watch via Facebook Live.

Use Text in Voting to vote for your favorite video using the number 919-351-8683. Participants can vote for as many competitors as they like but can only vote once for each competitor. Text in voting will take place from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. today.

To vote, a participant might text the following case sensitive message to the phone number above: “101” to vote for Blizzard Baja or “201” to vote for Medical Device Ball Bearing Temperature Test Fixture. Team numbers and videos will be available via the Design Expo website, and all who register for Live Webinars.

Get more details in “MTU Design Expo Unveils Student Innovations” on Michigan Tech News.


COVID-19: At Michigan Tech, How One Big Ship is Turning Itself Around.

R.L Smith Building, home to the Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics. “Like so many universities, we have a great culture of kindness here at Michigan Tech, says Chair William Predebon. “We’re all going through this together.”

Bill Predebon, longtime chair of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics at Michigan Tech, recently sent an email to all the students in his department. He asked three questions: “What went right? What went wrong?” And then, “Are you having any issues with tools?”

“Almost immediately I received 80 responses from undergraduates,” he said. “It’s important to solicit feedback directly from students while they are still in the midst of it.”

As universities across the state of Michigan and across the nation moved their courses to remote instruction to help slow the spread of COVID-19, Predebon had to act fast. Getting 1,736 students, and 55 faculty members entirely online in just four days was no small task.

“We’re a large ME department, one of the largest in the nation, but because of our strong sense of community of Michigan Tech, our culture of kindness, there was an immediate sense of responsibility to respond in a coordinated way—the best possible way,” says Predebon.

Predebon turned to ME-EM Associate Chair Jeff Allen, who quickly became the department’s conduit for using online tools.

“Jeff investigated the technology, so our faculty wouldn’t have to do that,” Predebon explains. “The majority had never taught online before—only about a dozen of our faculty had taken Michigan Tech’s online learning certification course.”

ME-EM Department Chair Bill Predebon stands in an empty lab classroom in the R.L. Smith Building on campus, with some equipment in the backround.
“Dealing with open-ended solutions, where there isn’t one right answer, is a key part of the design of our Mechanical Engineering Practice courses,” says Predebon. “I hope those problem-solving skills are helping our students, as they adjust to learning from home.”

“The first thing I did was to rephrase the information,” says Allen. “It had been presented by type of software, but not by function.” ME-EM faculty with online teaching experience also started helping, making phone calls and emailing back and forth with their colleagues.

“It’s really hard to give a lecture in an empty room. There’s zero feedback,” says Allen. “We were showing our faculty how to use the online lecture tools on campus. But then, within a day or two, as we realized what might be coming, I began urging faculty to gather all they’d need to teach their courses from home.”

Allen quickly bought webcams for faculty, along with headsets and microphones. “Everyone seemed to have a different kind of technology at home. Webcams sold out very fast online. All around the country, everyone was doing the same thing,” he said.

Four years ago, the Department eliminated traditional mechanical engineering labs and replaced them with hands-on Mechanical Engineering Practice (MEP) courses I, II, III and IV. The MEP courses are designed to be adaptable so that new subjects can be embedded as technologies advance. But how to virtualize these intensive hands-on courses?

“Our Graduate Teaching Assistants really went above and beyond. Udit Sharma and JJ Song recorded a half semester’s worth of video demonstrations in less than a week for the second MEP. There were similar efforts by faculty, staff and graduate students for the other three MEP courses,” said Allen. “They did an amazing job.”

Meanwhile, another group was busy virtualizing the ME-EM department’s Engineering Learning Center, an idea suggested by academic advisor Ryan Towles. Aneet Narendranath, a senior lecturer in mechanical engineering, spearheaded the effort.

“Our learning center supports our core courses—Thermodynamics, Statics, Dynamics, and Mechanics of Materials,” says Predebon. “Students taking these fundamental courses can now access peer tutoring online, from home.”

“Michigan Tech’s Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) shipped out document cameras to all our peer tutors. Then Dr. Narendranath coordinated a trial run—trying out the system as we put it into place,” says Allen. “Several faculty volunteered as guinea pigs, to let student tutors practice the system. We found subtle, odd things we weren’t expecting. Aneet and Ryan practiced together quite a bit more before we sent a message about it to all our students.”

Allen’s emphasis now has switched almost entirely to students. “At home, just like our faculty, their technology and tools vary. Some things really surprised us. For instance, very few students actually have a printer.”

Jeff Allen is the John F. and Joan M. Calder Professor in Mechanical Engineering. He is also the Associate Chair and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the ME-EM Department.

“One of our students had no computer at home,” adds Predebon.”When I found out, I was able to get a computer into her hands, but it took a few days. I thought it took a long time. She said she thought it was fast.”

“Most students are doing well now, especially those with a strong internet connection,” says Allen. “Other students relied much more on our university system. We’ve been going back and forth to iron out the bugs. Faculty are very flexible with student deadlines,” says Allen.

“The situation has shown the tenacity and caring of our faculty,” says Predebon. “One faculty member herself lives in an area with poor internet access. She tried many things to improve it, to no avail. To solve the problem she drives to a university building and parks in front to upload lessons for her students, and download their work. The building is closed, but she can still log in to the internet from her car. She can get back to her family faster that way, too. She has young children at home.”

“It has been a fantastic effort. Now we want to get through this semester. We’ll see what the summer holds, and this coming year,” adds Predebon. “We’ll take it as it comes.”


COVID-19 Health Alert: Michigan Tech Suspends Face-to-Face Instruction, Effective March 16, 2020.

Michigan Tech has suspended face-to-face instruction, effective March 16, 2020. The University has released a series of protocols concerning travel, remote work, and large gatherings. Emails have been sent to students and faculty. For more information & updates, visit mtu.edu/covid-19.

Message to the Campus Community
Read President Koubek’s full message to faculty, staff, and students.

Message to Students
Read Important COVID-19 Update to students from Bonnie Gorman, Dean of Students and Vice President of Student Affairs

Important Information for Students
Protocols, updates, and answers to frequently asked questions.

Michigan Tech Updates
The University is working closely with the Western Upper Peninsula Health Department and following the guidance of the CDC in monitoring COVID-19 developments. We have a pandemic preparedness plan in place, and six University task forces have convened to prepare for and respond to implications and impacts for the campus community. More information and updates at mtu.edu/covid-19

More about the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
An outbreak of a respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus named “2019 Novel Coronavirus” or “COVID-19” is affecting a large number of countries around the world, including the United States, where it has been declared a National Emergency. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is closely monitoring developments and travel advisories are in place.


Mechanical Engineer Turned Fine Artist: Gary Johnson (Part 2)

Gary Johnson, a Michigan Tech alumnus in Fayetteville Arkansas, tells the story of his second career: “It has taken years to break my engineer’s exacting look, and feel comfortable having people see what they want to see in my work.”

When it comes to the abstract, my inspiration develops as I develop the painting. I always try to utilize the design principles of good balance between geometric and curvilinear shapes, development of value change throughout the painting, and a good use of complementary colors. But it’s all in the eye of the beholder whether you like it or not.

Star Gazing, 2019, Gary Johnson
Star Gazing, 2019, Gary Johnson

Other times I get inspired by just items around the house that we’ve collected over the years. It dawned on me that I hadn’t painted a still life piece in quite a while, so I started looking at some china pieces we collected and thought they’d make a wonderful painting.

Rhapsody in Blue, 2019, Gary Johnson
Rhapsody in Blue, 2019, Gary Johnson

Sometimes it isn’t so much that inspiration finds me, as much as it is that someone commissions a painting. Now that is the ultimate compliment: when someone has seen my work and trusts me to paint something they treasure. This requires a lot of careful consideration on my part to make a determination if I’m up to the task. First, I need a good photograph—not some pixelated picture, but a really good piece I can blow up as if I were right there to see it all with my own eyes. If I can take the photograph myself, so much the better as I like to take advantage of any shadows cast. Here’s one–a portrait of a dog named Maximus.

Portraits are difficult. My advice is this: always make sure you get the eyes right. Everything else from there will work out.

Maximus, Gary Johnson, 2016
Maximus, Gary Johnson, 2016

People ask where I paint. We designed our home with a studio in it. This makes it so much more convenient for me as I can wander up anytime during the day or night to work on a painting.

My studio is on the second floor of our house. When I decide I’m too old to walk up and down those stairs (18 in all, and yes, I counted them) it can easily be converted into a master suite or a mother in-law-suite as it has a closet and bathroom next to it. After all, watercolorists need water and a place to rinse out the brushes among other things. It’s approximately 300 square feet—a comfortable size to house my good old-fashioned drafting table, flat files, and shelving units needed to support my habit.

The artist in his studio.
The artist in his studio.

I’m sometimes asked about my outlook on life as an artist. Is it different than my outlook as an engineer/business executive? To be honest, it isn’t much different. I suppose now that I’m retired, I want to be sure I’m alive long enough to achieve some of my long-range goals. Goal setting is something I’ve always done, so not much change there.

I don’t have a concern about what my next job or position might be now that I’m a retired artist. In my working life, I wasn’t always in control of my destiny. That’s one big difference from the working world. If I don’t finish a painting today, I can always work on it tomorrow. I can take as long as I want to finish a painting.

Snack Time, Gary Johnson
Snack Time, Gary Johnson

Have I ever experienced a creative block? I sure have. That’s when I usually put the brushes aside and start to read and study another person’s work. It’s also good to make a change in my daily activity as well, to not get stuck in a rut, so to speak. Variety is the spice of life and that is true for artists as well. Change it up. Go fishing. Get outside. You’d be surprised how quickly new ideas can pop up to jumpstart the creative juices and get them flowing again.

Am I a perfectionist? Not really. I would have never taken up watercolor painting. It is extremely unforgiving. When I make an error, I consider it a happy accident and work around it, as opposed to trying to do it over again, or trying to fix it. Neither work well in watercolor painting.

Personality-wise, I’m pretty much an optimist and a fairly outgoing person. I suppose it’s because of the confidence I gained while managing companies and people. I enjoy making new contacts and I enjoy giving back to my community. That’s why I’ve become a teacher of art, and a leader in our art organization here in Fayetteville. I hope I’ve influenced people to become involved in the art scene.

People ask if I have developed a style in my art. I’m still working in it, although people are starting to recognize my abstract pieces more and more as I display them at galleries in the area. More people now say they can easily recognize a piece as one of mine.

A Day In the Park, Gary Johnson
A Day In the Park, Gary Johnson

Realistically, I think my style is still evolving, growing into a less-structured, photographic type of painting—a looser style that I personally love. It has taken years to break my engineer’s exacting look and feel comfortable having people see what they want to see in my work, as opposed to making it obvious.

Autumn Reflection, Gary Johnson
Autumn Reflection, Gary Johnson

I hope you enjoyed reading my story as much as I’ve enjoyed putting it in writing. Feel free to contact me at garyj357@yahoo.com.

Gary

Coming soon: Part 3 of Gary’s guest blog. Learn how to make your own beautiful watercolor pigments (from rocks), and read his sage adviceboth to young people starting out, and those about to move into retirement. Did you happen to miss Part 1? Here’s the link. Want to see more of Gary’s paintings? Find them at garyjohnsonfineart.com